Tuesday, June 26, 2007

Morrison and Boyd Organic Chemistry

Today I enquired the book in book shop. It is a Pearson publication, 1992 edition reprinted in 2007 and the shop keeper offered it for Rs 320. I did not buy it. When I go next I shall buy the book

Sunday, June 24, 2007

Practice Set

The first practice set on the topic ores/minerals posted in the blog http://iit-jee-chemistry-ps.blogspot.com

Tuesday, June 19, 2007

Level 1 Lecture - Ores/Minerals and Extractive Metallurgy - Inorganic Chemistry


Ores and minerals:

Commonly occurring ores and minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium, aluminium, zinc and silver.

Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded);
Carbon reduction method (iron and tin);
Self reduction method (copper and lead);
Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium);
Cyanide process (silver and gold).

Ores and minerals of iron


Iron Pyrites
Copper Pyrites

Haematite is the principal ore.

Ores and minerals of Tin

Tin stone

Ores and minerals of Copper

Copper pyrites
Cuprite or ruby copper
Copper glance

Minerals of Lead


Minerals of Magnesium


Minerals of Alumium



Feldspar, Mica, Kaolinite

Alunite or Alumstone
Aluminates of Magensium, Iron and Manganese

Minerals of Silver

Horn Silver

Minerals of Zinc
(from X book by Viraf Dalal)

Zinc Blende

Minerals of Gold

Mainly native gold


For a practice set on this lesson see www.iit-jee-chemistry-ps.blogspot.com

Lecture Level I Transient elements Inorganic Chemistry


Transition elements (3d series):

Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment;

Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).

Elements of 3d series


Characteristics discussed under the heads

Oxidation state: Varies from 1 to 7.

Atomic Size; Decreases as we go towards right from left


Melting point and Boiling point:More metallic than Group I and Group II elements.

Ionisation Energy


Magnetic Property

Use as catalysts

Formation of complex compounds

Monday, June 18, 2007

Organic Chemistry - Open Book - Free Downloadable

Open Content Organic Chemistry Textbook on the web

There is an online textbook on Organic Chemistry on wikibooks. You can download the material.


Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Lecture Level I Molecular Orbital Theory Physical Chemistry

Molecular orbital theory is also a difficult topic. I found material from the site below to be useful to understand this topic.

Molecular Orbital Theory http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch8/mo.html

Diamagnetic and Paramagnetic substances

Atoms or molecules in which the electrons are paired are diamagnetic repelled by both poles of a magnetic. Those that have one or more unpaired electrons are paramagnetic attracted to a magnetic field. Liquid oxygen is attracted to a magnetic field and can actually bridge the gap between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. The molecular orbital model of O2 is therefore superior to the valence-bond model, which cannot explain this property of oxygen.

Lecture Level I VSEPR Model - Physical Chemistry

I found it difficult to understand this topic after reading TMH JEE Chemistry as well as Redmund. I found the tutorial in the site given below very useful understand this topic.

Molecular geometry: VSEPR http://winter.group.shef.ac.uk/vsepr/intro.html

Monday, June 11, 2007

Lecture Level 1, Physical Chemistry Chemical Bonding

Ionic Bond

In an ionic bond negative ions are surrounded by positive ions and positive ions are surrounded by negative ions. NaCl does not mean each Na and Cl ions are bound to each other. It only means the proportion of the ions is 1:1.

Tuesday, June 5, 2007

Level 1 Lecture Nonmetals Inorganic Chemistry


Compounds relevant to study of Boron

Borax (Na two B four O seven) Calamnite (Ca two B six O eleven)
Boron Trioxide (B two O three) Boric Acid (H three B O three)
Boron Nitride (B N)

Sodium Carbonate (Na two C O three)

Boron belongs to 13th group. It has a high melting point.

It is extracted from minerals Borax or Calamnite

Silicon (Si)

Compounds relevant to study of Boron

Silica (Si O two)
Silicon Halide (Si X four) X is for halogen

Sulphur (S)

Compound relevant to study of Sulphur

Hydrogen Sulphide (H two S)
Sulphur Dioxide (S O two)
Sodium Thio-Sulphate (Na two S two O three)

Ions formed by Sulphur

Sulphide ion (S O three (two-))
thiosulphate ion (S two O three (two-))

Sulphur occurs in the native as well as combined form.Large quantites of sulphur are obtained from underground deposits in USA.

Partial combustion of Hydrogen sulphide produce sulphur.
Reaction of Hydrogen Sulphide with Sulphur dioxide also gives sulphur.
Sulphur occurs as S eight. It is a puckered ring with crown conformation.

several allotropic forms of sulphur are available.

Rhombic sulphur (or alpha sulphur) is the stablest form. It is obtained by evaporation of solution of sulphur in carbon disulphide.

At about 95 C - 96 C rhombic sulphur is changed into another allotropic form monoclinic sulphur (als known as prismatic or beta sulphur).
Monoclinic sulphure has needle shaped crystals.

Other allotropic forms are amorphous (or colloidal) and plastic sulphur (or Gamma sulphur).

Amorphous sulphur is obtained by (1) the action of dilute Hydrochloric acid on sodium thio sulphate solution, and
(2)by passing Hydrogen sulphide through dilute nitric acid.

Plastic sulphur is obtained by pouring boiling sulphur in cold water. This results in rapid cooling. Plastic sulphur consists of a completely random arrangement of chains of sulphur atoms. On standing it passes over to the crystalline rhombic sulphur.

Sulphur is also active element like Oxygen. It combines with a large number of metals and nonmetals.

Sulphur is oxidized by concentrated nitric acid and sulphuric acid.
It also reacts with hot concentrated solution of alkalies.

See for some more details and diagrams on sulphur



Flourine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I).

Chlorine is yellow green gas
Bromine is reddish brown liquid
Iodine is steel grey solid


Carbon has two allotropic forms - diamond and graphite. Other amorphous carbons are actually micro crystals of graphite.

Diamond, an allotrope of Carbon is face centered crystal. It is the hardest natural substance. It is a nonconductor of electricity. It has high refractive inded (2.45) and much of the light that falls on it is internally reflected.

Diamond burns in air at 900 C and in oxygen at 700 C and forms carbon dioxide.

Graphite has a layer like structure in the three dimensional space and this gives it the lubricating property.

The carbon content of various amorphous forms of graphite; Peat (60%), Lignite (70%), Bituminous coal (78%) Semibituminous coal (83%) and Anthracite Coal (90%). The residue that remains after destructive distilation of coal in the absence of air is coke.


Ozone (O three) is an allotropic form of Oxygen.
It is naturally formed above 20 Km from the earth from oxygen by absorbing sunlight. Ozone layer protects earth from concentration of ultraviolet rays. chlorofluorcarbons (C Cl two F two) used as refrigerant releases active chlorine after absorbing sunlight and this active chlorine decomposes ozone leading to destruction of ozone layer.

It is thermodynamically more stable than diamond.

Monday, June 4, 2007

Rapidshare link for Organic Chemistry

Download a book on org. chemistry by using this link

Organic Chemistry

Lecture Level I. The Periodic Table

Periodic table was covered in the X class syllabus. But there are some interesting points about the periodic table that were covered in Redmund’s book in 5th chapter.

We all know that the horizontal rows in the periodic table are called periods, and the vertical columns are called groups. The groups are subdivided into A and B subgroups. The A subgroups, due to their similarities within a group, are often called families. Some of these families are referred to by special names, such as the alkali metals for Group IA, alkaline earth metals for Group IIA, and halogens for Group VIIA. The other A subgroups are sometimes classified according to the first member of the subgroup or family. Thus the IIIA elements are sometimes referred to as the boron family, the IVA elements as the carbon family, the VA elements as the nitrogen family, and the VIA elements as the oxygen family. The last group, called Group zero (or sometimes Group VIIIA), is now called the noble gases.

As well as being classified as metals or nonmetals, the elements are also divided into the following four types: representative elements, noble gases, transition elements and inner transition elements.

Friday, June 1, 2007

a very good site for organic chemistry




Dear Student,

I know that organic chemistry can sometimes be frustrating and a bit confusing. Therefore, I have created this site in order to provide students with a place to come when they feel that understanding organic chemistry is an almost impossible task. On this website I will try to break down organic chemistry into its most basic form. It will provide you with simple, easy to understand study guides, free printable notecards as well as many practice problems and straightfoward solutions. The site is divided by subject matter, so simply click onto the subject that you are having difficulty with and print out the review sheets and practice problems of your choice. I hope that this site makes organic chemistry as pain-free as possible. Who knows, you may even learn to like the subject! If you have any questions simply click onto the Ask Laura link. Any comments or suggestions? Click onto the Guest Book link and sign in. Just remember, don't give up, because I know that you can do it!

- Laura Friedland