Sunday, December 28, 2008

Organic Chemistry - Arihant Prakashan- Book Information and Review

I read the first five chapters so far. It is good material.

R.C. Mukherjee, Modern Approach to Chemical Calculations Book Information and Review

For problems in Physical Chemistry

Physical chemistry- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Text books



Arihant Prakashan

R.C. Mukherjee, Modern Approach to Chemical Calculations

Physical Chemistry - General topics- Study Guide - IIT JEE

The concept of atoms and molecules; Dalton's atomic theory;

Mole concept; Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations; Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions;

Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.

Gaseous and Liquid states- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Absolute scale of temperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation from ideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory of gases, average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature;

Law of partial pressures; Vapour pressure; Diffusion of gases.

Atomic structure and chemical bonding- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers; Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom (qualitative treatment), shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36); Aufbau principle; Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule;

Orbital overlap and covalent bond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only; Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species; Hydrogen bond; Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal, tetrahedral and octahedral).



Energetics- Study Guide - IIT JEE

First law of thermodynamics; Internal energy, work and heat, pressure-volume work; Enthalpy, Hess's law; Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization; Second law of thermodynamics; Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.

Chemical equilibrium- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Law of mass action; Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of DG and DGo in chemical equilibrium;

Solubility product, common ion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysis of salts.

Electrochemistry- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; Nernst equation and its relation to DG; Electrochemical series, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday's laws of electrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductance, Kohlrausch's law; Concentration cells.

Chemical Kinetics- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Rates of chemical reactions; Order of reactions; Rate constant; First order reactions; Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).

Solid State- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Classification of solids, crystalline state, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, a, b, g), close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearest neighbours, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds, point defects.

Solutions- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Raoult's law;
Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure, elevation of boiling point and depression of freezing point.

Surface chemistry- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms); Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties; Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).

Nuclear Chemistry- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Radioactivity: isotopes and isobars; Properties of a, b and g rays; Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbon dating; Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.

Inorganic Chemistry - Study Guide - IIT JEE


NCERT Books for XI and XII

Jauhar for XI and XII

Arihant Prakashan

Inorganic Chemistry for Competitions by O P Tandon, G.R. Bathla & Sons, Meerut

Preparation and Properties of Compounds of Metals- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation and properties of the following compounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides, carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphates of
magnesium and

compounds of Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums;

Preparation and Properties of Non-Metals- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens; Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamond and graphite), phosphorus and sulphur.

Preparation and Properties of Compounds of Nonmetals

Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax;
Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid);
Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide;
Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia;
Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide;
Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate;

Halogens and Halogen Compounds- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Isolation/preparation and properties of halogens

Halogen compounds: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides;

Fertilizers- Study Guide - IIT JEE

commercially available (common) NPK type.

Transition elements (3d series): - Study Guide - IIT JEE

Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation of spin-only magnetic moment; Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).

Ores and minerals- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Commonly occurring ores and minerals of
zinc and

Extractive metallurgy- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded);
Carbon reduction method (iron and tin);
Self reduction method (copper and lead);
Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium);
Cyanide process (silver and gold).

Principles of qualitative analysis- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Inorganic Chemistry

Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate, sulphide and sulphite.

Organic Chemistry - Study Guide - IIT JEE

Recommended books

Arihant Prakashan

Many recommend
Morrison and Boyd

Organic Chemistry Concepts - General Organic Chemistry - - Study Guide - IIT JEE

Hybridisation of carbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of molecules;

Structural and geometrical isomerism; Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centers, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded);

Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections);

IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds);

Resonance and hyperconjugation; Keto-enol tautomerism;

Determination of empirical and molecular formula of simple compounds (only combustion method);

Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids;

Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases;

Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides;

Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation, structure and stability of carbocations, carbanions and free radicals.

Alkanes- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes: Homologous series, physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction and decarboxylation reactions.

Alkenes- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes: Physical properties of alkenes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and ozone; Reduction of alkenes; Preparation of alkenes by elimination reactions; Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen); Metal acetylides.

Alkynes- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkynes:
Physical properties of alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acid catalysed hydration of alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination); Reduction of alkynes; Preparation of alkynes by elimination reactions; Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.

Saturday, December 27, 2008

Benzene- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions

Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity; Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation; Effect of o-, m- and p-directing groups in monosubstituted benzenes.

Alkyl halides- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions

Characteristic reactions of

rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilic substitution reactions;

Haloarenes- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions
Characteristic reactions of

Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution in haloarenes and substituted haloarenes - (excluding Benzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).

Alcohols- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions

Characteristic reactions of Alcohols

esterification, dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium, phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/conc.-HCl, conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones;

Phenols - - Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions

Characteristic reactions of

Acidity, electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbe reaction.

Aldehydes and Ketones- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions

Characteristic reactions of
oxidation, reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldol condensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaro reaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition);

NCERT Text Book for Class XII Part II, Chapter 12

12.1 Nomenclature and Structure of Carbonyl Group
12.2 Preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones
12.3 Physical properties
12.4 Chemical Reactions
12.4.1 Nucleophilic addition reactions
12.4.2 Reduction
12.4.3 Oxidation
12.4.4 Reactions due to α-hydrogen
Aldol condensation
12.4.5 Other reactions
12.4.5(i) Cannizzaro reaction
12.4.5(ii) electrophilic substitution reaction
12.5 Uses of Aldehydes and Ketones

Carboxylic Acids- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions

Characteristic reactions of
formation of esters, acid chlorides and amides, ester hydrolysis;

Amines- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Preparation, properties and reactions

Characteristic reactions of Amines

basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines, preparation from nitro compounds, reaction with nitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction

Carbohydrates- Study Guide - IIT JEE

Classification; mono and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation, reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.

Amino acids and peptides - Study Guide - IIT JEE

General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and physical properties.

Properties and uses of some important polymers - Study Guide IIT JEE

Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflon and PVC.

Practical Organic Chemistry - Study Guide for IIT JEE

Detection of elements (N, S, halogens); Detection and identification of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino and nitro; Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.

Wednesday, December 24, 2008

General Organic Chemistry

The chapters that deal with concepts applicable to all the organic compounds may be grouped under the head General Organic Chemistry. Six posts follow this chapter to cover various concepts applicable to all the compounds. All the posts are revision points only. The detailed reading of the material has to be done from the text books.

Concept of Acids and Bases - Application to Organic Compounds

Bronsted-Lowry theory

Acid is a proton donor and based is proton acceptor.
Any compound that has a hydrogen atom can act as a Bronsted-Lowry acid.
Hence H-A is used as general representation for an acid (H represents hydrogen)

Lewis Theory
According to Lewis theory, any molecule that has an electron deficient atom (site) that can accept a pair of electrons, is an acid.

Conjugate acid

Conjugate base

Acidity constant

Ph value

The effects of structure of the molecule on the strengths of acids and bases

Acids and Bases - Videos on Knol

Bonding Concepts - Organic Compounds


Dipole momennt

Atomic orbitals
Molecular orbitals



Elemental Analysis of Organic Compounds - Quantitative and Qualitative

Revision points

Qualitative analysis

Functional group identification

Carboxylic group - sodium bicarbonate test
Alcoholic group - Ceric ammonium nitrate
Phenolic group - Neutral ferric chloride solution

Carbonyl compounds - Brady's test
Aldehyde group - Tollen's reagent (silver-mirror test)
Methyl ketones - Iodoform test

Ester - Hydroxyl amine
Ester - saponification

Amides - nitrous acid test

Alkenes and Alkynes - Bromine test, Baeyer's test

Quantitative analysis

Nomenclature of organic Compounds

IUPAC Rules for Nomenclature of Organic Compounds

IUPAC Rules for Nomenclature of Alkanes

1. The unbranched alkanes are named according to the number of alkanes of carbons. Examples: Methane, Ethane, Propane etc.

2. For alkanes containing branched carbon chains, the principal chain of the compound needs to be determined. This is the longest continuous carbon chain in the molecule.

3. In determining the principal chain sometimes, two or more chains in the molecule may have same number of carbons in their chains. In such a case, the chain having the greater number of branches is chosen as the principal chain of the molecule.

4. Numbers have to be given for the carbon atoms, to which the branches are attached. To give numbers, principal chain of the carbon atoms is numbered from the direction that gives the lower number to the first branching point.

5. Branching groups are in general termed as substituents. Each group is to be given an IUPAC name (prefix name) and is prefixed to the name of the principal chain of the molecule.

6. Compound is named according to the pattern “number- alkyl group prefix name principal chain name”. Name of the group (prefix) and name of the principal chain are written together as one word.

7. Where there are more than one substituent groups, each substituent group must be given its own number depending on the carbon to which it was attached.

8. In case of identical substituents, prefixes di, tri, tetra etc., are used before the group prefix name to indicate number of identical groups.

9. Substituent groups are written in alphabetical order regardless of their location in the principal chain but the prefixes di, tri… as well as the prefixes tert- and sec- are ignored in deciding the alphabetical order, and the prefixes iso, neo, and cyclo are considered.

10. If the number of carbon atoms of the principal chain from either gives identical numbers to the substituent attachment carbons, the direction which gives the lower number to the first written group (according to the alphabetical order) is chosen.


Major Topics

Structural isomerism

Stereo isomerism

Structural isomerism is further classifed as

Chain or Nuclear Isomerism
Functional isomerism

Sterio isomerism is further classfied as

Geometrical isomerism
Optical isomerism, enantiomerism or d,l isomerism

Geometrical isomerism - E and Z configuration

Optical isomerism has the follwing concenpts

Meso compound
Racemic mixture
R and S configuration


Sunday, December 21, 2008

Organic Reaction Mechanisms

An organic reaction occurs between a substratum (an organic compound) and an attacking agent termed a reagent.

1. Bond Cleavage (Homolytic or Heterolytic Cleavage)

The bonds in the organic compound break and reaction intermediates are formed. These reactions intermediates are:

1. Free radicals
2. Carbocations (An ion that has carbon atom with positive charge)
3. Carbanion (An ion with carbon atom with negative charge)
4. Carbene (singlet and triplet)
5. Radical ion

Homolytic Fission

Free radicals form as intermediates

Heterolytic Fission

Carbocations, carbanions and carbenes form during this type of fission

2. Reagents

Electrophiles, Nucleophiles and Ambiphiles are reagents.

This reagent requires electrons.
Examples: ions like NO2+, Cl+
and atoms in molecules like S03 and BF3.


They are negatively charged and attack positively charged atoms.
Examples ions like OH-, CN-, H- or
atoms in molecules like N in NH3 and O in H2O.


H2O It has an electron attacking and electron repelling site also.

3. Inductive Effect:
The study of this effect is important because of its implication for the stability of reaction intermediates.

When an electron-withdrawing or electron-releasing group (substituent) is attached to carbon chain, polarity is induced on the carbon atom and on the substituent attached to it. This is called inductive effect or simply as I-effect.

Negative Inductive Effect (-I Effect)
Postive Inductive Effect (+I Effect)

4.Electromeric effect
In presence of an electrophile, there is complete transfer of π electrons from one atom to other to produce temporary polarity on atoms joined by mutliple bonds. It is called electromeric effect.

Positive Electromeric effect
Negative Electromeric effect

5. Mesomeric effect

In conjugate systems (compounds having alternate π and sigma bonds) π-electron shifting takes place consecutively giving permanent polarity on the chain. This π-electron shift in conjugate systems is called mesomeric effect or conjugate effect.


6. Hyperconjugation

When an alkyl group is attached to a double bond (unsaturated system in general), the hydrogen in the alkyl group releases an electron and becomes positive. And in the process there is no bond formation between C and H+. This type of electron release is called hyperconjugation.

7. Types of Reactions


7a. Addition Reactions
This reaction is characteristic of the compounds having double or triple bonds.

7b. Elimination Reactions

In most elimination reactions, two groups on adjacent atoms are lost and a double bond is formed. Thus, the product of an eliminatin reaction is an alkene.

7c. Substitution Reactions

In this reaction, one atom or group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another.

Join IIT JEE Academy Orkut Community for more interaction