Monday, November 23, 2015

Ideal Gas Equation - van der Waals equation

pV = nRT

Van der Waals correction

[p + n²a/V²] [V-nb] = nRT

(Van der Waals Birthday  23 November)


Updated 23 Nov 2015, 4 Feb 2008

Study Guide TMH JEE Ch.24 Benzene

JEE syllabus

Structure

Aromaticity

Electrophile Substitution Reactions
---Halogenation
---Nitration
--- Sulphonation
--- Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
--- Friedel-Crafts Acylation

Effect of --, m- and p- directing groups in mono-substituted benzenes
----------------------

Main Topics Covered in the TMH Book

STRUCTURE OF BENZENE

MECHANISM OF ELECTROPHILIC SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS

THEORY OF ORIENTATION

ACTIVATION OF BENZENE VIA RESONANCE

RELUES FOR PREDICTING ORIENTATION N DISUBSTITUTED BENZENES

ARENES (AROMATIC-ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS)

ALKENYL BENZENES
-----------------------

Important themes of the Chapter/Topic

Benzene has the molecular formula C6H6. It has hexagonal ring of six carbon atoms with three double bonds in alternate positions.

Arenes are the aromatic hydrocarbons which contain one or more hexagonal rings of carbon atoms with double bonds in alternate positions.


I. Structure


1. Benzene is a liquid hydrocarbon of formula C-6H-6.
2. It is a cyclic molecule in the shape of a flat hexagon.
3. In the bonds among six carbon atoms three have to be double bonds so that tetravalent bonding arrangement is preserved and the double bonds have to be alternate bonds in the ring.
4. The resonance energy of benezene is about 150.6 kJ per mol.
5. All carbon-carbon bond distances in benzene are equal (139 pm) and are intermediate in length between single (154 pm) and double bonds (134 pm)
6. Benzene is a planaer molecule where each carbon is sp^2 hybridized.
7. Of the three hybrid orbitals, two are used in sigma-bonding with two other carbon atoms and the third is used in sigma-bonding with hydrogen atom.
8. In addition to hybrid orbitals, eahc carbon has one p orbital occupied by one electron. This orbital lies perpendiculars to the plane of benzene ring, and hence this electron is of pi-type.
9. The p orbital of each carbon atom can overlap with the adjacent p orbitals making additional bond of pi-type. But this bond is not localized between two carbon atoms. But forms two continuous doughnut-shaped electon cloud one lying above and the other below the plane of cyclic carbon skeleton. The delocalization of pi-electrons gives rise to resonance energy and makes the molecule more stable.
10. The overlap of p orbitals in both directions gives rise to resonance hybrid of two strctures known as Kekule structures.
(August Kekule presented the structure of Benzene on 27 January 1865)
II. Nomenclature

III. Aromaticity

Aromatic compound are those which resemble benzene om chemical behaviour. These compounds contain alternate double and singe carbon-carbon bonds in a cyclic structure. They are more stable compared to aliphatic hydrocarbons having double bonds and undergo substitution reactions rather than addition reactions. These two characteristic behaviours in combination is aromatic character or aromaticity.

1. A molecule acquires aromatic characteristics provided it has cyclic clouds of delocalized pi-electrons above and below the plane of the molecule and this pi- clouds have a total of (4n+2) pi-electrons. This requirement of 4n+2 pi-electrons is known as 4n+2 rule or Huckel rule.
2. Examples are benzene (n = 1), naphthalene (n = 2) and anthracene (n = 3).

The modern theory of aromaticity was advanced by Eric Huckel. For aromaticity, the molecule must be planar, cyclic system having delocalised (4n+2) pi elctrons.
IV. Isomerism

V. Preparation of benzene and its homologues

1. From alkynes: acetylene and other alkynes polymerise at high temperatures to give benzene and other arenes.

3C2H2 gives C6H6

Benzene was first synthesized by Berthelot by passing acetylene through red hot iron tube.

2 Decarboxylation of aromatic acids: by heating sodium benzoate with soda lime

Decarboxylation: Removal carboxyl group

3. From phenol: by distillation of phenol with zinc.

4.From diazonium salts reduction of benzene diazonium with hypophosphorus acid (H3PO2)

5. From aryl halides

6. From Friedel Craft's reaction
Benzene is treated with alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride. For example when the alkyl halide is monochloromethane, Toluene(methylbenzene - methyl group substituted for one H in benzene is obtained)

7. From Grignard's reagent: reacting aromatic Grignard reagent with alkyl halide

Ex: Phenyl magnesium bromide + Isopropyl bromide in ether give isopropyl benzene.

Va. Physical properties

i) colour less liquids up to eight carbon atoms
ii) aromatic hydrocarbons are insoluble in water ut soluble in organic solvents.
iii) They are inflammable and burn with sooty flame
iv) M.P. and B.P. increase with increasing molecular mass.
v) they are toxic and carcinogenic in nature.

VI. Chemical properties

Even though double bonds are present, benzene is quite stable and does not undergo common addition reactions undergone by alkenes.

Benzene and other arenes undergo following types of reactions.

1. substitution
2. addition
3. oxidation


VIa. Substitution Reactions in Benzene

1. The typlical reactions of the benzene ring are those in which the pi-electrons serve as a source of electrons for electrophylic (acidic) reagents. In these substitution reactions, hydrogen atoms attached to carbon atoms are replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
2. Because of delolcalization of pi-electrons, benzene does not show addition reactions as in the case of alkenes(presence of double bond).

3. Halogenation

benzene will react with a mixture of Cl-2 and FeCl-3.


The output is a combination of benzene with Cl, Cl diplacing one hydrogen atom from benzene(Chlorobenzene).

4. Nitration
A mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid is the nitrating agent.
(a) The reaction between nitric acid and sulphuric acid gives nitronium ion. Nitric acid acts as base in this reaction and donate OH giving No-2^+

(b) the nitronium ion makes the electrophylic attack on benzene. Benzonium ion is formed. This step is a slow reaction or step. Hence this is a rate determining step. Benzonium ion is a carbocation. It is a resonance hybrid.

(c) From the benzonium ion the proton is removed by the HSO-4^- which is a product of step (a). Thus a combination benzene and NO-2 that displaces one hydrogen atom from benzene is formed.

5. Sulphonation

The product is a combination Benzene and SO-3H that displaced one hydrogen atom from benzene.

For sulphonation we require excess of H-2SO-4 along with SO-3.

6. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation

Benzene reacts with a combination of alkyl halide and AlCl-3. AlCl-3 acts as a Lewis acid.

The alkyl group replaces one hydrogen atom in benzene.

7. Friedel-Crafts Acylation

Acylation is the term given to substituting an acyl group such as CH-3CO- into another molecule. An acyl group is a hydrocarbon group attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond.

The most commonly used example of an acyl group is the ethanoyl group, CH3CO-.

If you react benzene with ethanoyl chloride in the presence of an aluminium chloride catalyst, the equation for the reaction is:

AlCl-3
C-6H-6 + CH-3CoCl ------> C-6H-5-COCH-3 + HCl



In the simplified formula for the product, the phenyl group is usually written on the left-hand side and the alkyl group to the right of the carbon-oxygen double bond.

The aluminium chloride is acting as a catalyst.

The product is called phenylethanone (old name, acetophenone).

Source: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/organicprops/acylchlorides/fc.html

Mechanism of electrophilic substitution reactions of benzene

VIb. Addition reactions

VIc. Oxidation reactions

VII. Effect of --, m- and p- directing groups in mono-substituted benzenes

In planning syntheses based on substitution reactions of mono-substituted benzenes, you must be able to predict in advance which of the available positions of the ring are most likely to be substituted.

Basically, three problems are involved in the substitution reactions of aromatic compounds: (a) proof of the structures of the possible isomers, o, m, p, that are formed; (b) the percentage of each isomer formed, if the product is a mixture; and (c) the reactivity of the compound being substituted relative to some standard substance, usually benzene.

a. the Pattern of Orientation in Aromatic Substitution

The reaction most studied in connection with the orientation problem is nitration, but the principles established also apply for the msot part ot the related reactions of halogenation, sulfonation, alkylation and acylation.
--------------------
web sites
Notes on the Structure and Nomenclature-naming of Aromatic Compounds
http://www.docbrown.info/page07/Aromatics.htm


Updated  23 Nov 2015, 14 Oct 2007

Chemistry Knowledge History - July





July 1


Birthday
Gerald Maurice Edelman 1929: structure of antibodies; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1972.
Gladys Anderson Emerson 903: isolation and function of vitamin E (tocopherol); vitamin B deficiencies.
Alfred Goodman Gilman 1941: G-proteins and cellular signal transduction; Nobel prize (medicine), 1994.
Franz Joseph Müller von Reichenstein 1740: discovered tellurium (Te, element 52).


July 2

Birthday 
Richard Axel  1946: research on olfaction, one of the "chemical senses;" Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2004.
Elkan Rodgers Blout born 1919: protein conformation.

William Henry Bragg born 1862: X-ray crystallography (Bragg's law); Nobel Prize (Physics), 1915 with son William Lawrence.
IIT - JEE:  http://iit-jee-physics.blogspot.in/2008/11/braggs-law.html

Fritz Haber demonstrated nitrogen fixation process (Haber process for synthetic ammonia) to Badische Aniline und Soda-Fabrik (BASF), 1909.
Albert Ladenburg born 1842: synthesis of pyridine, piperidine, and other compounds
Jean'ne Marie Shreeve born 1933: synthetic fluorine chemistry, particularly fluorinated compounds of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus; Garvan Medal, 1972.
Fritz Ullmann born 1872: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
Paul Weisz born 1919: catalytic activity of artificial and natural zeolites.

July 3

Antoine-Jerome Balard announced discovery of bromine (Br, element 35) to Académie des Sciences, Paris, 1826.
Samuel Proctor Massie, Jr. born 1919: silicon chemistry;
Sergei Semenovich Nametkin born 1876: terpene chemistry; rearrangement of camphenes.

July 4
Ernst Otto Beckmann born 1853: Beckmann rearrangement in organic chemistry; Beckmann thermometer .
NASA Pathfinder landed on Mars, 1997. Unmanned mission included physical and chemical characterization of Martian surface.

July 5
American Cyanamid (now part of BASF Agricultural Products) organized, 1907.
Herbert Spencer Gasser born 1888: electrophysiology of nerves; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1944.
John Howard Northrop born 1891: purification of enzymes and proteins; fermentation process for acetone manufacture; Nobel Prize, 1946.
William Macquorn Rankine born 1820: thermodynamics of steam engines; absolute temperature scale (Rankine scale). His article on science of engineering is very good.
Robert Williams of Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories announced synthesis of vitamin B1, 1936.

July 6
William Hobson Mills born 1873: tetrahedral ammonium ions; materials for photography in red light.
Axel Hugo Theorell born 1903: structure of enzymes; crystallized myoglobin; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1955.

July 7
Robert Goddard obtained a patent (US patent 1,102,653) for a liquid fuel rocket, 1914.
Camillo Golgi born 1843: neuroscience, including the so-called "black reaction" for staining nerve cells; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1906.

July 8
Jason Cardelli reported in Science interstellar abundances of the heaviest elements yet detected in interstellar gas (including thallium and lead), 1994.



July 10
Kurt Alder born 1902: Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction, Nobel Prize, 1950 with Otto Diels.

July 11
Samuel Abraham Goudsmit born 1902: electron spin.
William Robert Grove born 1811: electrochemistry; fuel cells; conservation of energy
Theodore Harold Maiman born 1927: invented ruby laser (first operable optical laser, US patent 3,353,115; )

July 12
Claude Bernard born 1813: discovered glycogen; research on digestion.
Mildred Cohn born 1906: isotopic labeling and isotope effects
Elias James Corey born 1928: synthetic organic chemist, Nobel Prize, 1990.
George Eastman born 1854: inventor and manufacturer of Kodak films and cameras.
William Ramsay and Morris Travers discovered xenon (Xe, element 54).

July 13
Stanislao Cannizzaro born 1826:  Cannizzaro reaction in organic chemistry.

July 14
André Louis Debierne born 1874: radiochemistry, discovered actinium (Ac, element 89).
Jean-Baptiste-André Dumas born 1800: organic chemist (isolated anthracene from coal tar); vapor density method (Dumas method) for determination of atomic and molecular weights; theories of organic radicals and of chemical types.
Ferdinand II de' Medici born 1610: invented a sealed thermometer; patron of scientists, including Galileo.
Ei-ichi Negishi born 1935: palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis; Nobel Prize, 2010.
Mary Lura Sherrill born 1888: organic synthesis of antimalarial compounds; Garvan Medal, 1947. 
Geoffrey Wilkinson born 1921: inorganic chemistry (sandwich compounds, such as ferrocene; complex hydrides, homogeneous catalysis); Nobel Prize, 1973

July 15
William Baker born 1915: molecular structure; solid state materials; physical propoerties of polymers
Max Bodenstein born 1871: chemical kinetics, including chain reactions.
Albert Ghiorso born 1915: co-discoverer of transuranic elements americium (Am, element 95), curium (Cm, 96), berkelium (Bk, 97), californium (Cf, 98), einsteinium (Es, 99), fermium (Fm, 100), mendelevium (Md, 101), nobelium (No, 102), lawrencium (Lr, 103), rutherfordium (Rf, 104), dubnium (Db, 105; hahnium was proposed name), and seaborgium (Sg, 106).
Robert Bruce Merrifield born 1921: solid-phase peptide synthesis; Nobel Prize, 1984
The Royal Society (UK), one of the oldest scientific societies, was granted a charter by Charles II, 1662.

July 16
Atomic bomb test, Trinity Site, Alamogordo Air Force Base, 1945.
Joseph Goldberger born 1874: physician in the US public health service; linked pellagra to a dietary deficiency.
Irwin Rose born 1926: protein chemistry; Nobel Prize, 2004, "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation."
Alfred Stock born 1876: boron hydrides, mercury poisoning.

July 17
Frederick Augustus Abel born 1827: co-inventor of cordite; Abel tester for petroleum flash point

July 18
Roald Hoffmann born 1937: molecular orbital theory; Woodward-Hoffmann rules (conservation of orbital symmetry); Nobel Prize, 1981.
Robert Hooke born 1635: best known as a physicist for his work on elasticity and a biologist for microscopy (Micrographia), Hooke also studied gases.
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz born 1853: structure of matter and optical properties; Zeeman effect; Nobel prize (Physics) 1902 with Zeeman.
Hartmut Michel born 1948: structure of photosynthetic proteins; Nobel Prize, 1988.
Frederick Dominic Rossini born 1899: numerical reference data in thermodynamics.

July 19
Eleuthère du Pont began construction of gunpowder factory (precursor of DuPont), 1802.
Allene Jeanes born 1906: food chemist, first woman to win USDA Distinguished Service Award, 1953.
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow born 1921: developed radioimmunoassay; Nobel Prize (Medicine) 1977.
July 20
Gerd Binnig born 1947: scanning tunneling microscope; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1986.
Tadeus Reichstein born 1897: hormones of the adrenal cortex; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1950.
July 21
Georg Brandt born 1694: discovered cobalt (Co, element 27).
Rudolph Arthur Marcus born 1923: theory of electron transfer reactions; Nobel prize, 1992. Marcus is the M of RRKM theory; read a retrospective paper by Marcus.
Henri-Victor Regnault born 1810: thermometry and other thermal phenomena.

July 22
Selman Abraham Waksman born 1888: discovery of antitubercular agent streptomycin; Nobel prize (Medicine), 1952. the streptomycin patent (US 2,449,866).

July 23
Emma Perry Carr born 1880: ultraviolet spectra of hydrocarbons; first recipient of ACS Garvan Medal, 1937.
Icie Macy Hoobler born 1892: biochemistry related to nutrition of children, infants, and pregnant women
Vladimir Prelog born 1906: organic stereochemistry, including Cahn-Ingold-Prelog rules for nomenclature; Nobel prize, 1975.

July 24
William de Wiveleslie Abney born 1843: color photography and its chemistry.

July 25
Colgate-Palmolive incorporated 1923
Rosalind Franklin born 1920: X-ray crystallography of DNA;
Andreas Libavius died 1616 (birth date unknown in 1540): author of Alchemia (or Alchymia) (perhaps first chemical textbook), fuming liquor of Libavius, ammonium sulfate, chemical analysis.

July 26
Isaac Babbitt born 1799: invented babbitt's metal for bearings (an alloy of tin, antimony, and copper)

Paul Walden born 1863: electrical conductivity and electrolytic dissociation; Walden inversion.

July 27
Bertram Borden Boltwood born 1870: early radioactivity and radiochemistry research.
Friedrich Dorn born 1848: discovered radon (Rn, element 86), an "emanation of radium" in 1900.
Hans Fischer born 1881: research on hemin, chlorophyll, porphyrins, and related compounds; Nobel prize, 1930

July 28
James Curtis Booth born 1810: methods for refining gold-silver bullion at US Mint, Philadelphia.

July 29
Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat born 1910: separated viral RNA from protein and showed that RNA was the active agent, turning attention to the role of nucleic acids in heredity.
Walter Julius Reppe born 1892: industrial organic chemistry (at BASF); high-pressure reactions of acetylene.
Isidor Isaac Rabi born 1898: atomic and molecular beam spectroscopy; nuclear magnetic properties; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1944

July 30

July 31
August Beer born 1825: Beer-Lambert law relating absorption of light to concentration of absorbing material
Paul Delos Boyer born 1918: enzymatic mechanism of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis; Nobel Prize, 1997.
The first US patent was in industrial chemistry, issued in 1790 to Samuel Hopkins on a process for making potash and pearl ashes (signed by President Washington).
Stephanie Kwolek born 1923: invented Kevlar® (US patent 3,819,587); Perkin medal 1997.
Primo Levi born 1919: chemically-trained memoirist; Survival in Auschwitz and The Periodic Table.
Sofia Simmonds born 1917: amino acid metabolism of bacteria; Garvan Medal, 1969.
Friedrich Wöhler born 1800: synthesis of organic compounds from inorganic materials (oxalic acid and urea); isolated aluminum (Al, element 13) and beryllium (Be, 4); preparation of acetylene (ethyne) from calcium carbide





Chemsitry History
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/July.html


Updated 23 Nov 2015, 21 July 2012

Chemistry Knowledge History -November







November 1
Antoine Lavoisier reported to the French Academy of Sciences that sulfur and phosphorus gain weight upon heating, 1772. .
First detonation of a thermonuclear fusion bomb (H-bomb) at Elugelab Atoll, Marshall Islands, 1952.


November 2
Karl Benz receives patent (German patent 37435) for first automobile with internal combustion engine, 1886.
DuPont begins mass-production of the first commercially available synthetic rubber, DuPrene, in 1931.
Conrad Willgerodt born 1841: organic chemist interested in conversion of internal ketones to terminal thioamides (Willgerodt reaction)

November 3
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists founded, 1921.

Daniel Rutherford born 1749: discovered nitrogen (N, element 7); distinguished between carbon dioxide and nitrogen; invented maximum and minimum thermometer

Carlton Schwerdt announced crystallization of poliomyelitis virus at University of California, 1955.

Jokichi Takamine born 1854: biochemist and industrialist, isolated adrenaline (epinephrine).

November 4

Boris Aleksandrovich Arbuzov born 1903: organic chemist; free radicals of triarylmethane derivatives, terpenes, phosphorous-containing heterocycles

James Douglas born 1837: mining engineer: Hunt-Douglas process for copper extraction; established first commercial electrolytic copper plant.

Charles Kuen Kao born 1933: fiber optics for communication; Nobel Prize (physics), 2009

Karl Friedrich Mohr born 1806: analytical chemistry, particularly titrimetric methods; Mohr's salt (ferrous ammonium sulfate, Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2.

Charles Lee Reese born 1862: manufacture of dyes and explosives.

William Hyde Wollaston presented his "synoptic scale of equivalents" to the Royal Society, 1813.

X-10 fission reactor, the first to produce large amounts of radioisotopes for further research, went critical at Oak Ridge, 1943.

November 5
Neil Kensington Adam born 1891: surface film monolayers; two-dimensional state of matter at water-air interface;
William Phillips born 1948: laser cooling of atoms; Nobel Prize (physics), 1997.

Paul Sabatier born 1854: catalysis in organic chemistry; hydrogenation of oils to solid fats; Nobel Prize, 1912

Marc Tiffeneau  born 1873: organic molecular transpositions (e.g., Tiffeneau-Demjanov rearrangement); pharmacology.

November 6

Isidor (Ian) Morris Heilbron born 1886: synthesis of natural products such as vitamins A and D

November 7

Marie Curie  born 1867: codiscoverer of radium (Ra, element 88) and polonium (Po, 84) with husband Pierre; other fundamental work in radioactivity; Nobel Prize (physics), 1903; Nobel Prize (chemistry), 1911. Curium (Cm, element 96) is named after Marie and Pierre.

Eric Kandel born 1929: molecular mechanisms of synapse modification, including protein phosphorylation; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2000.

Lise Meitner born 1878: nuclear fission; discoverer of protactinium (Pa, element 91). Meitnerium (Mt, element 109) is named after her.

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman born 1888: Raman effect (inelastic scattering of light; ); Nobel Prize (physics), 1930.

November 8
Lawrence Elgin Glendenin born 1918: codiscoverer of promethium (Pm, element 61)
Herbert Sander Gutowsky born 1919: rotational and NMR spectroscopy.
Darleane Christian Hoffman born 1926: production and study of transuranium elements; discovery of 244Pu in nature; Garvan Medal, 1990; Priestley Medal, 2000.
Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays, 1895.
Johannes Rydberg born 1854: empirical relationship for series of atomic spectral lines later provided clues on atomic structure; Rydberg constant named after him

November 9


Thomas Drummond heated a ball of lime in front of a reflector, 1825. This first practical use of limelight leads to improvements in theater and lighthouse lighting.

Element 110 (Darmstadtium, Ds) created (3 atoms) at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, 1994.

Grace Medes born 1886: metabolism of fatty acids and of sulfur and sulfur-containing amino acids

Ronald George Wreyford Norrish born 1897: kinetics of extremely fast reactions; Nobel Prize, 1967

Jack Szostak born 1948: telomerase; Nobel Prize (medicine), 2009.

November 10

Andrès Manuel Del Rio born 1764: discovered vanadium (V, element 23 ), which he called erthronium

Ernst Otto Fischer born 1918: structure of ferrocene; Nobel Prize, 1973.

November 11

Discovery of cosmic rays announced, 1925, in Madison, WI.
Glenn Seaborg announced discovery of americium (Am, element 95) and curium (Cm, 96) on the Quiz Kids radio program, 1945, in response to a question.

November 12

Jacques Charles born 1746: Charles' law relating temperature and volume of a gas; invented hydrogen balloon.

John Dalton announced the first example of the law of multiple proportions in 1802 (in a paper on atmospheric gases).

Antoine Lavoisier described to the French Royal Academy of Sciences in 1783 experiments that show water to be a compound, not an element.

John William Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) born 1842: codiscoverer of argon (Ar, element 18); Nobel Prize (physics), 1904.

November 13
Edward Adelbert Doisy born 1893: research on sex hormones; isolated theelin (estrone) and vitamin K; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1943

November 14

Leo Baekeland born 1863: invented Bakelite plastic (phenol-formaldehyde resins, US patent 942,699) and Velox paper; president of Electrochemical Society

Frederick Grant Banting born 1891: extraction of insulin and its role in diabetes; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1923.

Harry Barkus Gray born 1935: inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry (electronic structure, spectroscopy, mechanisms)

Auguste Laurent born 1807: discovered anthracene; obtained phthalic acid from naphthalene; identified carbolic acid with phenol; nucleus theory of organic radicals; constructed a saccharimeter

November 15
Carl Gassner, Jr. received US patent 373,064 for a dry cell battery, 1887

Albertus Magnus died 1280 (birth date unknown in 1200): discovered arsenic (As, 33); first to use the term affinity in the chemical sense;

Humphry Davy named chlorine (Cl, element 17), 1810. Chlorine had been called oxymuriatic acid.

November 16

Joel Hildebrand born 1881: liquids and solutions; introduced helium (He, element 2) into deep-sea diving
November 17

George Thomas Beilby born 1850: invented process for retorting shale; industrial synthesis of alkaline cyanides

November 18

Seth Boyden born 1788: invented a process for manufacturing malleable iron, but did not patent his inventions

Louis Daguerre born 1789 : photographic pioneer, inventor of the daguerreotype
George Bogdan Kistiakowsky born 1900: reaction rates, science policy.
George Wald born 1906: chemistry of vision; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1967.

November 19
Humphry Davy announced the isolation of sodium (Na, element 11) and potassium (K, 19) to the Royal Society, 1807. (Read excerpts of Davy's announcement.)
Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov born 1711: suggested law of conservation of mass; suggested that heat was a form of motion; recorded freezing of mercury; opponent of phlogiston theory
James Batcheller Sumner born 1887: enzymes and proteins; crystallized urease and showed it to be a protein; Nobel Prize, 1946
Earl Sutherland born 1915: mechanism of hormone action, including role of cyclic AMP; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1971.

November 20
Karl von Frisch born 1886: zoologist, chemical and visual perception of fish and bees; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1973.

November 21
Vladimir Nikolaievich Ipatieff born 1867: high-pressure catalysis; petroleum chemistry (at Universal Oil Products Riverside Laboratory).
Hieronymus Theodor Richter [auf Deutsch] born 1824: codiscoverer of indium (In, element 49).

November 22
Andrew Fielding Huxley born 1917: co-discoverer of ionic mechanism of neural conductance; gransdon of biologist Thomas Henry Huxley; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1963.
The Manned Spacecraft Center (now the Johnson Space Center announced a process to extract water and oxygen from moon soil, 1970. (Learn more about human space flight and about water on the moon.)
Dmitri Mendeleev stated that gallium (Ga, element 31) is identical to eka-aluminum, 1875. View early versions (1869, 1871) of Mendeleev's periodic table or his retrospective of the periodic law 20 years later.

November 23

Rachel Fuller Brown born 1898: biochemist, co-discoverer of the fungicide nystatin (US patent 2,797,183), the first antibiotic used effectively to treat human fungal infections.

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley born 1887: discovered that X-ray frequency is related to atomic number of elements.
IIT - JEE:  (http://iit-jee-physics.blogspot.in/2008/11/moseleys-law.html)

Johannes Diderik van der Waals born 1837: equation of state for non-ideal gases (van der Waals equation), intermolecular interactions (van der Waals forces), electrolytic dissociation, capilarity; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1910.
IIT - JEE:   http://iit-jee-chemistry.blogspot.in/2008/02/ideal-gas-equation-van-der-waals.html

November 24
Robert Banks born 1921: polyethylene and polypropylene (US patent 2,825,721).

November 25
Julius Robert von Mayer born 1814: conservation of energy

November 26


Elizabeth Helen Blackburn born 1948: telomerase; Nobel Prize (medicine), 2009.

Charles Hatchett announced discovery of columbium (niobium, Nb, element 41) before Royal Society, 1801.

John Alexander Reina Newlands born 1837: classification of elements ("law of octaves")

Charles Adolphe Wurtz born 1817: synthesis of hydrocarbons (Wurtz reaction), methyl & ethyl amines, phosphorous oxychloride, and glycol.

Karl Ziegler born 1898: polymerization through organometallic catalysis; plastics; Nobel Prize, 1963.

November 27

Lars Onsager born 1903: thermodynamics of irreversible reactions; Nobel Prize, 1968

Anders Celsius born 1701: set up a centigrade temperature scale with 0 at the boiling point of water and 100 at the freezing point. Today's Celsius scale has 0 at the freezing point and 100 at the boiling point.

Chaim Weizmann born 1874: biological synthesis of acetone; first president of Israel.

November 28
Maurice Arveson born 1902: petroleum technology, including hydrocarbon conversion patent 2,360,463; president of the American Chemical Society.
First pure compound of berkelium (Bk, element 97) announced, based on work at the University of California, Berkeley, 1962.
John Wesley Hyatt born 1837: inventor of the plastic celluloid.

Alfred Nobel obtained a patent for smokeless gunpowder (Ballistite), 1887. )

November 29

Wallace Broecker born 1931: ocean cirulcation; carbon cycle; global climate change.
Yuan Tseh Lee born 1936: molecular beam study of gas-phase reactions; Nobel Prize, 1986.

November 30

Chlorotetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic (also known as aureomycin), was isolated by Benjamin Minge Duggar at American Cyanamid (now part of BASF Agricultural Products), 1948.
.

Henry Taube born 1915: electron-transfer reactions; Nobel Prize, 1983.

Andrew Victor Schally born 1926: function and synthesis of hypothalamic hormones; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1977.

Smithson Tennant born 1761: discovered iridium (Ir, element 77) and osmium (Os, 76); determined that diamonds are pure carbon.

Egor Egorevich Vagner (also known as Georg Wagner) born 1849: terpene chemistry; permanganate hydroxylation of alkenes; Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements


Chemsitry History
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/November.html

Chemistry Knowledge History - December



Chemsitry History - December
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/December.html


December 1
The Drunkometer, first practical breath test for alcohol, was patented in 1936 by Rolla Neil Harger (US patent 2,062,785).

Martin Heinrich Klaproth born 1743: discovered uranium (actually uranium dioxide) (U, element 92) from pitchblende; discovered zirconium (Zr, 40); codiscovered cerium (Ce, 58); rediscovered chromium (Cr, 24).

Martin Rodbell born 1925: G-proteins and their role in signaling in cells; Nobel prize (medicine), 1994


December 2

Paul (Ching-Wu) Chu born 1941: high-temperature superconducting materials.

Isabella Karle born (as Isabella Lugoski) 1921: three-dimensional structure of molecules via diffraction of X-rays and electrons.

First artificially initiated self-sustained nuclear fission reaction (Chicago pile one) under Stagg Field, University of Chicago, 1942.

Nikolai Matveyevich Kishner born 1867: Wolff-Kishner reduction of aldehydes and ketones.
Ludwig Knorr born 1859: synthesis of heterocyclic compounds.

December 3

Paul Josef Crutzen born 1933: meteorology and atmospheric chemistry including ozone chemistry; Nobel Prize, 1995. Link to his 1970 paper on nitrogen oxides and ozone.
Carl Koller born 1857: biological effects of cocaine; pioneer in local anaesthesia (with cocaine).
Richard Kuhn born 1900: structure and synthesis of vitamins and carotenoids; refused Nobel Prize in 1938 on instructions of Nazi government, but received it in 1949.
Ellen Swallow Richards born 1842: analytical chemistry, particularly as applied to water quality; founder of the home economics movement
Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn born 1886: X-ray spectroscopy; father of 1981 Nobel laureate electron spectroscopist Kai Siegbahn; Nobel Prize (physics), 1924.

December 4

Alfred Day Hershey born 1908: microbial genetics; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1969.
Charles Holmes Herty born 1867: chemistry of natural resources; paper chemistry.

December 5

Carl Ferdinand Cori born 1896: carbohydrate metabolism; discovered how glycogen is catalytically converted; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1947 (with wife Gerty)
Werner Heisenberg born 1901: quantum mechanics (matrix mechanics); Heisenberg uncertainty principle; Nobel Prize (physics),

Christian Friedrich Schönbein received US patent 4,874 for guncotton, 1846.


December 6

Charles Frederick Chandler born 1836: researcher in sugar, petroleum, and illuminating gas industries; a founder of the American Chemical Society
Rudolph Fittig born 1835: organic synthesis (e.g., lactones, toluene); Wurtz-Fittig reaction; discovered diphenyl phenanthrene and coumarone (benzofuran)
Louis-Joseph Gay-Lussac born 1778: law of expansion of gases with increasing temperature; law of combining volumes of gases; isolated boron (B, element 5); research on chlorine, fermentation, prussic acid, and composition of water.
Charles Martin Hall born 1863: discovered method of extracting aluminum electrolytically (US patent 400,665) from bauxite
Nicolas Leblanc born 1742: Leblanc process for making sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) from common salt.
George Porter born 1920: developed flash photolysis technique for chemical kinetics; Nobel Prize, 1967
George Eugene Uhlenbeck born 1900: electron spin.


December 7

First thermosetting manmade plastic ("Bakelite") patented, 1909 (US patents 942,699 and 942,700 to Leo Baekeland): reaction involved phenol and formaldehyde.

Linus Pauling published Vitamin C and the Common Cold, 1970.
Theodor Schwann born 1810: named and investigated pepsin; coined the word metabolism.
December 8
Eugene Cook Bingham born 1878: plastic flow and viscosity
Thomas Robert Cech born 1947: discovered cellular role of ribonucleic acid (RNA); Nobel Prize, 1989.
Jan Ingenhousz born 1730: early work on the phenomenon of photosynthesis, including a description of the production of oxygen by plants
Thomas Edward Thorpe born 1845: atomic weights, viscosity of liquids, and chemical analyses

December 9

Claude-Louis Berthollet born 1749: steps toward the law of mass action; analysis of ammonia; discovered bleaching action of chlorine; discovered composition of prussic acid (HCN); showed that acids need not contain oxygen.
Fritz Haber born 1868: high-pressure synthesis of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen (Haber process); Nobel Prize, 1918
William Nunn Lipscomb, Jr. born 1919: three-dimensional structure of enzymes and proteins; research on boranes; Nobel Prize, 1976.
Eilhard Mitscherlich read paper on isomorphism to Royal Academy of Science, Berlin, 1819.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele born 1742: discovered chlorine (Cl, element 17); isolated oxygen ("fire air"); Scheele's green; isolated phosphorus (P, element 15) from bone ash; research on action of light on silver salts; synthesized organic acids

December 10

Norbert Rillieux received US Patent 4879 for multiple effect evaporator for sugar refining, 1846.

December 11

Max Born born 1882: quantum mechanics; interpretation of the wave function (Born interpretation); Born-Oppenheimer approximation in molecular quantum mechanics; Nobel Prize (physics), 1954.
Charles Frederick Cross born 1855: rayon manufacture (cellulose acetate), cellulose and papermaking.
Paul Greengard born 1925: biochemical action of dopamine and other neurotransmitters; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2000.
Vitamin B12 isolated by Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, 1947.
Horace Wells, dentist, first used nitrous oxide as an anesthetic, 1844.

December 12

Eugen Baumann born 1846: iodine in thyroid.
First pure compound of californium (Cf, element 98) announced at 1960 meeting of American Nuclear Society.
William Henry born 1775 : discovered that the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the gas pressure (Henry's law).
Alfred Werner born 1866: coordination chemistry; inorganic complexes, stereochemistry; Nobel Prize, 1913

December 13

Olaf Kristian Birkeland born 1867: first industrial fixing of nitrogen.
Casein fiber patented, 1938, by Earle Whittier and Stephen Gould.
William Henry Chandler born 1841: academic chemistry laboratory design and instruction in the US.
Charles Alfred Coulson born 1910: Valence and molecular structure calculations.
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner born 1780: noted triads of elements with similar properties and a progression of atomic weight; catalytic action of platinum; invented instantaneous-lighting lamp (Döbereiner lamp)

Max Josef von Pettenkofer born 1818: calorimeter for human energy changes.

December 14

Max Planck introduced the notion of light as quantized energy packets to the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, (German Physical Society) 1900.
Glenn Seaborg, Edwin McMillan, Joseph Kennedy, and Arthur Wahl bombarded uranium oxide with 16-MeV deuterons to produce plutonium (Pu, element 94) in 1940.
Edward Lawrie Tatum born 1909: discovered genes which regulate some chemical processes; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1958

December 15
 Antoine-Henri Becqurel born 1852: discovered radioactivity (Becquerel rays) from uranium salts; Nobel Prize (physics), 1903.
Maurice Wilkins born 1916: X-ray crystallography of biological materials; DNA structure; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1962.

December 16
Johann Wilhelm Ritter born 1776: electrolyzed water, collecting hydrogen and oxygen; discovered ultraviolet rays

December 17

Émilie du Châtelet born 1706: chemical nature of fire

Humphry Davy born 1778: isolated barium (Ba, element 56), calcium (Ca, 20), magnesium (Mg, 12), potassium (K, 19), sodium (Na, 11), and strontium (Sr, 38); co-discovered boron (B, 5); recognized as elementary and named chlorine (Cl, 17); invented Davy mine safety lamp. His first work on heat and friction includes some insightful ideas and dubious experiments.

Michael Faraday enunciated first law of electrolysis, "Chemical power, like magnetic force, is in direct proportion to the absolute quantity of electricity which passes," 1832.

Fission of uranium (U, element 92) by neutrons detected by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Berlin, 1938; the interpretation of the event as fission would await a paper by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch.

Willard Frank Libby born 1908: developed carbon dating; Nobel Prize, 1960.

John Lawrence Smith born 1818: toxicology and chemistry of minerals

December 18

Mary Letitia Caldwell born 1890: isolation, structure, and activity of starch enzymes (amylases).

Joseph John (J. J.) Thomson born 1856: characterized "cathode rays", discovering a particle (the electron) with much smaller mass to charge ratio than any known up to that time; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1906. Thomson went on to determine the charge of cathode rays and identify them with other manifestations of electrons; his work on positive rays led to the development of mass spectroscopy; his work on the structure of atoms include his "plum pudding model" and an argument that the number of electrons in an atom was comparable to its atomic mass (in atomic mass units).

Edgar Bright Wilson born 1908: vibrational spectroscopy (Molecular Vibrations ).


December 19

Thomas Andrews born 1813: discovered critical temperatures of gases (temperature above which they cannot be liquefied); read his lecture on the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states.

Berkelium (Bk, element 97) discovered by Kenneth Street, Jr., Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, and Albert Ghiorso using ion-exchange chromatography at University of California, Berkeley, 1949.

Pauline Beery Mack born 1891: nutritional content of meat and vegetables; bone density studies; laundering behavior of textiles; Garvan Medal, 1950.

Alan Walsh born 1916: atomic absorption spectroscopy.

December 20

Einsteinium (Es, element 99) discovered by  Louise Smith, Sherman Fried, Gary Higgins; Albert Ghiorso, Rod Spence, Glenn Seaborg, Paul Fields and John Huizenga using ion-exchange chromatography at University of California, Berkeley, 1952.

Birthdays

Thomas Graham 1805: absorption of gases, osmosis, colloids, and dialysis; Graham's law of effusion

Jaroslav Heyrovsky 1890: invented polarographic method of analysis; Nobel Prize, 1959.

December 21

John Mayow baptized 1641 (birth date uncertain): discovered that air contained two gases, one of which ("spiritus nitro-aerous") supported life and combustion.

Hermann Joseph Muller born 1890: theory of genes; mutation by X-rays; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1946.

More Details on the topics


December 22

William Lloyd Evans born 1870: chemistry of carbohydrates;

Arie Jan Haagen-Smit born 1900: nature and source of smog; smog abatement.

Vladimir Markovnikov born 1838: synthesis of cyclobutane and cyclopentane derivatives; Markovnikov's rule for additions to alkenes.

John Clarke Slater born 1900: orbital approaches to quantum chemistry (Slater-type orbitals, Slater determinant); tetrahedral carbon compounds.


December 23

Axel Fredrik Cronstedt born 1722: discovered nickel (Ni, element 28) and zeolite; classification of minerals
Helen Abbott Michael born 1857: chemical composition of plants; synthetic organic chemistry;

Paul Schützenberger born 1829: physiological chemistry.

December 24

James Prescott Joule born 1818: thermodynamics; mechanical equivalent of heat (view his apparatus; Joule-Thomson effect (temperature of gas falls when the gas expands without doing work); kinetic theory of gases

Benjamin Rush born 1745: signer of Declaration of Independence; published first American chemistry textbook

Augustus Vernon-Harcourt born 1834: invented 10-candlepower standard lamp using pentane.

December 25

Herman Frasch born 1851: sulfur mining (Frasch process, developed in Louisiana)
William Gregor born 1761: discovered titanium (Ti, element 22); analysis of minerals
Gerhard Herzberg born 1904: spectroscopic analysis of electronic structure and geometry of molecules and radicals; Nobel Prize, 1971
Isaac Newton born 1642: made fundamental contributions to physics (gravitation, optics, mechanics) and mathematics (calculus); researcher in alchemy.
Ludwig Ferdinand Wilhelmy born 1812: chemical kinetics; first measurement of homogeneous reaction rate.
Adolf Windaus born 1876: synthesis of histamine; structure of cholesterol; research on steroids; Nobel Prize, 1928

December 26

Clemens Winkler born 1838: discovered germanium (Ge, element 32); analysis of gases
Marie and Pierre Curie discover radium (element 88, Ra), 1898.
Ali Javan born 1928: inventor of helium-neon laser, the first gas laser and first continuous-wave (CW) laser.

December 27
Gerardus Johannes Mulder born 1802: protein analysis; physiological chemistry (including chemistry of wine).
Louis Pasteur born 1822: research in stereochemistry (optical activity of tartaric acids), fermentation, decomposition, microbes, and anti-microbial treatment of beverages (pasteurization)

December 28
Ernest Eliel born 1921: organic stereochemistry and conformational analysis
Karl Remigius Fresenius born 1818: qualitative and quantitative analytical chemistry
Kary Mullis born 1944: developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for making copies of DNA; Nobel Prize, 1993
Wilhelm Röntgen announced his discovery of new rays, 1895, inspiring research that would lead to a thousand papers on X-rays within a year.
Lewis Hastings Sarett synthesized cortisone at Merck, Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, 1944.


December 29

Discovery of heavy water (D2O) announced, 1931.
Ellen Gleditsch born 1879: nuclear chemistry; half life of radium.
Charles Goodyear born 1800: vulcanization of rubber (US patent 3,633)
Helen Vaughn Michel born 1932: neutron activation analysis, with applications to archeology and geology
Alexander Parkes born 1813: invented parkesine (later called xylonite, a kind of celluloid); electroplating

December 30

William David Coolidge of General Electric is issued US Patent 1,082,933 for ductile tungsten for incandescent bulb filaments, 1913.


December 31

Hermann Boerhaave born 1668: physician and chemist, Elementa Chemiae
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac read his memoir on combining volumes of gases to the Philomathic Society of Arcueil, 1808.
Colin Garfield Fink born 1881: electrochemical research, development, industry, and education; president of the Electrochemical Society
Gilbert Stork born 1921: organic synthesis; first stereorational synthesis (cantharidin, 1951); stereoselective total synthesis of quinine.

Science History  in December

http://chemistry.about.com/od/decemberinscience/december_in_Science_Today_in_Science_History.htm



Updated  23/11/2015, 20/12/2014


Saturday, June 6, 2015

2. Solid State - JEE Main - Core Revision Points

Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.


JEE Syllabus (2015)  on Solid State Topic


Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids,   Bragg’s Law and its applications; calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.


Jauhar, CBSE XII class

Sections in the Chapter


2.1 Space Lattices and Unit Cell
2.2 Close Packing in Crystalline Solids
2.3 Interstitial Sites or Interstitial Voids
2.4 Types of Cubic Crystals and Number of Atoms per Unit Cell
2.5 Experimental Methods of Determining Crystal Structure: X Rays Diffraction
2.6 Coordination Number and Radius Ratio
2.7 Ionic Radii
2.8 Calculation of Density of a Crystal from its Structure
2.9 Structures of Ionic Compounds
2.10 Imperfections in solids
2.11 Properties of solids
2.12 Amorphous solids


Solid State - Revision Points



The main content covered in the chapter is about the formation of crystals in solids. Last section 2.12 is about amorphous solids which are not crystalline solids.


Solids can be broadly classified into two categories: crystalline and amorphous.


Crystalline solids


The outstanding features are its flat faces and share edges which in a well developed form are usually arranged symmetrically.  Therefore, there is a high degree of internal order throughout the crystal. There is a definite pattern constantly repeating in space that forms the crystal. This order in the crystal is known as long-range order.

Amorphous solids


Amorphous solids are not crystals and they do not have long range order but have short-range order. An ordered arrangement exists around some atoms, molecules or ions only up to short distances. The same order will not be found around other atoms or molecules in the solid at another place. In many was amorphous solids are more closely related to liquids and are therefore regarded as supercooled liquids with high viscosity.  Some crystalline materials can be converted into amorphous or glassy form by rapidly cooling the melt. Freezing the vapours also gives rise to amorphous solids.

Bonds Present in  Solids



Molecular bonds:  In these solids, the constituent particles are molecules. The molecules are held together by weak Van der Waals forces. Examples are iodine, ice and solid carbon dioxide.

Ionic bonds:  Ionic solids have positively and negatively charged ions which are arranged in crystal form and held together by strong electrostatic forces. Examples are salts like NaCl, NaNO3, LiF and Na2SO4 etc.

Covalent bonds:  In these solids, the constituent particles are atoms and they are held together by covalent bonds. Examples are diamond, silicon carbide, and silica.


Metallic bonds: In solids with metallic bonds, positive kernels are immersed in a sea of mobile electrons. The forces between the constituents, positive kernels and electrons form the metallic bonds. These bonds are present in metals like copper, nickel etc.

2.1 Space Lattice and Unit Cell


The crystalline solids have their constituent particles - molecules, ions or atoms at specific locations in a three dimensional space, the basic shape of which repeats many times to form the crystalline solid.  The arrangement of this infinite set of points at which the constituent particles of the solid exist is called space lattice.

Space Lattice


A space lattice is a regular arrangement of the  constituent particles of a crystalline solid in three dimensional space. These points are called lattice points.

Unit Cell


A unit cell is the smallest repeating unit in space lattice.



Parameters to describe a unit cell


Six parameters are required.  The unit cell is assumed to be formed of straightline in three axes.

These the three basic vectors along three crystallographic axes are termed (a,b, and c). Three angles are there between the crystallographic axes (α,β,γ). The angle α is between the edges b and c, The angle β is between edges c and a. The angle γ is between the edges b and a.


Seven Crystal Systems


Crystals can be classified into seven categories


Triclinic -  a is not equal to b  is not equal to - (α,β,γ) are different and not equal to 90 degrees

Monoclinic

Orthoclinic

Trigonal or Rhombohedral

Cubic

Tetragonal

Hexagonal


2.2   Close Packing in Crystalline Solids

In the formation of crystals, closed packing of the constituent particles takes place.



Square Pattern

To understand arrangement of the particles in a solid one can visualise four particles arranged as a square. In this one particle assumed as a sphere is above another particles and four such sphere form a square and the pattern is repeated. But this pattern is not the usual pattern because only 52.4% of the available space becomes occupied in this square pattern of packing.

Hexagonal Pattern

In hexagonal close packing of particles (assumed as spheres), the spheres in the second row are placed in the depressions between the spheres in the first row. (In earlier square pattern, a sphere is placed on another sphere. But now a sphere is placed in the depression between two spheres in  the row below. In this packing, 60.4% of space gets occupied. Hence this hexagonal close packing gives more close packing.

Co-ordination Number

The number of spheres which are touching a given sphere in packing arrangement is called co-ordination number. Thus in two dimensional representation coordination number is 4 in square arrangement and six in hexagonal arrangement.




2.3 Interstitial Sites or Interstitial Voids

In the packed structure of the crystalline solid, there are hollow spaces between particles. These holes are voids are called interstitial sites or interstitial voids. Two important interstitial sites are 1. Tetrahedral interstitial site.  (2) Octahedral interstitial site.


2.4 Types of Cubic Crystals and Number of Atoms per Unit Cell

There are three common types of cubic crystals.

1. Simple cubic
2. Body centred cubic
3. Face centred cubic or cubic close packing

2.5 Experimental Methods of Determining Crystal Structure: X Rays Diffraction


The structure of solid is studied by X-ray diffraction methods.

Bragg Equation:

n lamba = 2d sin theta

where d = distance between the planes of the constituent particles of the  crystal.
lamba = wave length of the x-ray used.
n =  1,2,3 etc.  standing for the serial order of the diffracted beam.


2.6 Coordination Number and Radius Ratio
2.7 Ionic Radii
2.8 Calculation of Density of a Crystal from its Structure
2.9 Structures of Ionic Compounds
2.10 Imperfections in solids
2.11 Properties of solids
2.12 Amorphous solids


close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices;

packing of crystals;
Body centred cubic(bcc),
Hexagonal closed packed (hcp) and

cubical close packed (ccp)

Point defects: Schottsky defects, Frenkel defects





See an Oxford Video on Crystal Structure
09. Geometry of Solids I: Crystal Structure in Real Space
http://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/09-geometry-solids-i-crystal-structure-real-space

Good Websites for Solid State Topic

Updated 6 June 2015
Originally published  22 May 2015

Good Websites for topic Solid State - Chapter Two in Jauhar




Oxford Video on Crystal Structure
09. Geometry of Solids I: Crystal Structure in Real Space
http://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/09-geometry-solids-i-crystal-structure-real-space



https://www.nde-ed.org/EducationResources/CommunityCollege/Materials/Structure/solidstate.htm


http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~chem101/sschem/solidstatechem.html




Future use of the material in this topic

The material is solid state is further useful in the topic of Solid State Electronics - Semiconductors




The website below was not found when checked on 6 June 2015

http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/icl/heyes/structure_of_solids/Strucsol.html




Contents

Lecture 1. Fundamental Aspects of Solids & Sphere Packing.


1. Why Study Solids?

2. Some crystallographic ideas

lattice (lattice types)
motif (basis)
crystal structure
unit cell (counting atoms in unit cells)
fractional coordinates
coordination number


3. Representations of structures

Perspective (Clinographic)
Projection (Plan) diagrams

4. Close-Packing of spheres

hexagonal close packing (hcp)
cubic close packing (ccp)

5. Structures of metallic elements

6. Interstitial sites in close-packed arrangements


Updated 6 June 2015
Originally posted  1 June 2007

Sunday, May 24, 2015

Ch.2 States of Matter - JEE Main Core Points for Revision

Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.

Matter exists in three physical states, solid, liquid, and gaseous.

Solid State: A substance in solid state has a definite size (volume) and a definite shape. As we know shape can be changed by applying force. It can be broken into pieces by hammering etc. The solids are hard and rigid. Some common solids in article share we see are stainless plates and glasses. We also use things like combs, mirrors, scooters and cars. Some of the elements that we see in solid shape are iron, aluminium, silver,and gold etc.

Liquid State: A liquid possesses definite volume but not a definite shape.

Gaseous State: A gas of a given mass, neither possesses a definite volume nor definite shape.

Contents of the Chapter

2.1 Intermolecular Forces Versus Thermal Energy of Three States of Matter
2.2 Measurable Properties of Gases
2.3 Gas Laws
2.4 Some Problems Involing Chemical Equations

2.6 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
2.7 Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution of molecular Speeds
2.8 Deviations from Ideal Gas Behavior - Real Gases
2.9 Liquification of Gases and Their  Critical Phenomena
2.10 Kinetic Molecular Model of Liquids
2.11 Properties of Liquids
2.12 Charateristics of Solids
2.13 Classification of Solids
2.14 Size andShare of Crystals
2.15 Types of Solids on the basis of Binding Forces
2.16 Intermolecular Forces


Core Revision Points of the Chapter States of Matter

2.1 Intermolecular Forces Versus Thermal Energy of Three States of Matter



Particle concept of matter: According to this concept, all matter consists of tiny particles (atoms or molecules) which are constantly moving in all directions. These particles exert attractive forces upon one another called inter particle (intermolecular) forces.

2.2 Measurable Properties of Gases


1. Measurement of Mass
2. Measurement Volume
3. Measurement of Pressure
4. Measurement of Temperature

2.3 Gas Laws


1. Boyle's Law (Boyle Bday 25 January)
2. Charles' Law
3. Avogadro Law
4. The Combined Gas Lawor Ideal Gas Equation
5. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
6. Graham's Law of Diffusion or Effusion



1. Boyle's Law
2. Charles' Law
3. Avogadro Law
4. The Combined Gas Law or Ideal Gas Equation

2.4 Some Problems Involing Chemical Equations

2.5 Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures






6. Graham's Law of Diffusion or Effusion


When a cylinder of colourless hydrogen gas inverted over a cylinder of brown bromine vapour, after some time, we can see that both the cylinders become yellowish brown. This means hydrogen has travelled to the lower cylinder and bromine vapour moved to the upper cylinder.

Gases have the tendency to intermix and to form a homogeneous mixture. This property is known as diffusion.

Diffusion is defined as the process of intermixing of two or more gases, irrespective of density relationship adn without the help of external agency.


Graham's Law of Diffusion: The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density or molar mass.


Effusion: Effusion is a special case of diffusion wherein a gas escapes through a small aperture from the vessel in which it is contained.

The rate of escape is inversely proportional to the square root of its density or molar mass.

2.6 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases


The important postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory

1. Gases consist of large number of minute particles called molecules.
2. The molecules are separated by large distances. The empty space in gas is so large that the actual volume occupied by the molecules is negligible when compared to the total volume of the gas.
3. Molecules of the gas are in state of random motion in all directions. In this motion they keep on colliding with each other and also the walls of the container.
4. Collisions between molecules as well as between molecules and walls of the container are elastic. It means there is no loss of energy in the system due to collisions. There may be redistribution of energy among molecules.
5. There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between molecules.
6. The pressure exerted by a gas on the walls of a container is due to the collision of the molecules.
7. The average kinetic energy of translational motion of gas molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.

2.7 Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution of molecular Speeds


Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature;


Molecular Speeds

From the expression for kinetic temperature

Substitution gives the root mean square (rms) molecular velocity:

From the Maxwell speed distribution this speed as well as the average and most probable speeds can be calculated.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/kinetic/kintem.html

2.8 Deviations from Ideal Gas Behavior - Real Gases


Van der Wals' equation for real gases

2.9 Liquification of Gases and Their  Critical Phenomena


Critical temperature is the temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied however high the pressure may be.

2.10 Kinetic Molecular Model of Liquids

 1. Liquids are composed of molecules.
2. There are appreciable intermolecular forces between molecules that hold them together in the liquid.
3. Still, the intermolecular forces are weak, hence molecules of liquids are in constant random motion.
4. The average kinetic energy of molecules in a given sample is proportional to the absolute temperature.

2.11 Properties of Liquids



1. Volume
2. Density
3.Compressibility
4. Diffusion
5. Evaporation
6. Enthalpy of vaporisastion

7.Vapour Pressure

When a liquid is placed in a vessel and is covered with jar, from the liquid evaporation takes place and the vapour of the liquid or molecules of the liquid in gap form fill the available space. As the evaporation takes place over a period of time, the number of gaseous molecules goes up. As evaporation is taking place some molecules in the gaseous phase collide with the surface of the liquid and become liquid molecules. Thus both evaporation and condensation take place simultaneously. But initially there is more evaporation and less condensation. At the some stage, rate of evaporation equals rate of condensation and equilibrium is established between gas and liquid phases. The pressure exerted by the vapours at the equilibrium stage is called vapour pressure.

Definition
The pressure exerted by the vapours above the liquid surface (in a closed vessel) in equilibrium with the liquid at a given temperature is called vapour pressure.

Vapour pressure changes from liquid to liquid. It depends on intermolecular forces. if the forces in a liquid are weak, there is more gas formation and hence more vapour pressure.

A higher temperature there is more gas formation and hence for the same liquid vapour pressures increase with temperature.

8. Boiling
9. Surface tension
10. Viscosity

2.12 Charateristics of Solids


1. Solids are rigid and have definite shape


2.13 Classification of Solids


1. Crystalline Solids  2. Amorphous Solids

2.14 Size and Share of Crystals


Law of constancy of interfacial angles of a crystal,

2.15 Types of Solids on the basis of Binding Forces


1. Molecular crystals
2. Iconic crystals
3. Covalent crystals
4. Metallic crystals

2.16 Intermolecular Forces


In addition to normal covalent bond, ionic bond, and metallic bond, there are weak attractive intermolecular forces which occur in all kinds of molecular solids. These are present in case of non-polar molecules such as H2, O2, CO2, CH4 etc. also.

These are classified as:
i) Dipole-dipole forces
ii) Dipole induced dipole forces
iii) Instantaneous dipole-instantaneous induced dipole forces (called London forces)
iv) Hydrogen bonding

JEE Main - Chapters - Modern Chemistry for Class XI by Dr. S.P. Jauhar

1. Some basic concepts of chemistry

Study Guide - 15 Days

Core Revision Points

Notes

2. States of Matter

Study Guide - 13 Days

Core Revision Points

Notes

3. Atomic Structure

Study Guide - 12 Days

Core Revision Points

Notes

4. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

5. First Law of Thermodynamics and Chemical Energetics

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Notes

6. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Notes

7. Equilibrium I – Equilibrium Process and Phase Equilibria

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Notes

8. Equilibrium II – Ionic Equilibrium in Solutions

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Notes

9. Redox Reactions

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Notes

10. Principles and Processes of Extraction of Elements

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Notes

11. Hydrogen

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

12. s-Block Elements

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Notes

13. Some p-Block Elements

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Notes

14. Organic Chemistry: Some Basic Principles

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

15. Hydrocarbons

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Alkanes - Revision Notes

Alkenes

Alkynes

Aromatics - Benzene

16. Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

17. Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Halogens

Study Guide

Core Revision Points

Alkyl halides

18. Environmental Pollution

Study Guide

Core Revision Points



Updated 24 May 2015
First posted 20 Dec 2014

Saturday, May 23, 2015

18. Chemistry in Everyday Life - JEE Main - Core Revision Points

Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.

Sections in the chapter – Jauhar

18.1 Chemical medicines and health care
18.2 Dyes
18.3 Chemicals in Cosmetics
18.4 Advanced materials
18.5 Chemicals in food
18.6 Detergents
18.7 Insect repellants: pheromones and sex attractants
18.8 Chemistry of rocket propellants



Sections in the chapter – Jauhar

18.1 Chemical medicines and health care
18.2 Dyes
18.3 Chemicals in Cosmetics
18.4 Advanced materials
18.5 Chemicals in food
18.6 Detergents
18.7 Insect repellants: pheromones and sex attractants
18.8 Chemistry of rocket propellants

17. Biomolecules - JEE Main - Core Revision Points


Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.

Sections in the chapter - Jauhar

17.1 The Cell
17.2 Energy cycle
17.3 Carbohydrates
17.4 Monosaccharides
17.5 Disaccharides
17.6 Polysaccharides
17.7 Important functions of carbohydrates
17.8 Aminoacids
17.9 Structure of alpha-Amino acids
17.10 Peptides and proteins
17.11 Proteins
17.12 Classification of proteins
17.13 Structure of proteins
17.14 Forces that stabilize protein structures
17.15 Native states and denaturation of proteins
17.16 Enzymes
17.17 Nucleic acids
17.18 Structure of DNA
17.19 Lipids
17.20 Hormones
17.21 Vitamins

Sections in the chapter - Jauhar

17.1 The Cell
17.2 Energy cycle
17.3 Carbohydrates
17.4 Monosaccharides
17.5 Disaccharides
17.6 Polysaccharides
17.7 Important functions of carbohydrates
17.8 Aminoacids
17.9 Structure of alpha-Amino acids
17.10 Peptides and proteins
17.11 Proteins
17.12 Classification of proteins
17.13 Structure of proteins
17.14 Forces that stabilize protein structures
17.15 Native states and denaturation of proteins
17.16 Enzymes
17.17 Nucleic acids
17.18 Structure of DNA
17.19 Lipids
17.20 Hormones
17.21 Vitamins

16. Polymers - JEE Main - Core Revision Points


Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.


Sections in the chapter - Jauhar


16.1 Polymers
16.2 Classification of Polymers
16.3 General methods of Polymerisation
16.4 Mechanism of addition Polymerisation
16.5 Copolymers
16.6 Natural rubber
16.7 Condensation of Polymers
16.8 Molecular masses of Polymers
16.9 Biopolymers
16.10 Biodegradable Polymers
16.11 Some Commercially important Polymers



Sections in the chapter - Jauhar


16.1 Polymers
16.2 Classification of Polymers
16.3 General methods of Polymerisation
16.4 Mechanism of addition Polymerisation
16.5 Copolymers
16.6 Natural rubber
16.7 Condensation of Polymers
16.8 Molecular masses of Polymers
16.9 Biopolymers
16.10 Biodegradable Polymers
16.11 Some Commercially important Polymers

15. Organic Compounds with functional Groups Containing Nitrogen (Nitro, Amino, Cyano and Diazo Compounds) - JEE Main - Core Revision Points

Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.

Sections in the chapter spread over three parts

Part A Nitro compounds

15A.1 Nomenclature of nitro compounds
15.2 Preparation of nitro compounds
15.3 Physical properties of nitro compounds
15.4 Chemical properties of nitro compounds
15.5 Uses of nitro compounds
15.6 Distinction between nitroalkanes and alkyl nitrites
15.7 Some commercially important compounds


Part B Amines

15B.1 Nomenclature of amines
15.2 Isomerism in amines
15B.3 Preparation of amines
15B.4 Industrial Preparation of amines
15B.5 Physical properties of amines
15B.5B Chemical properties of amines
15B.6 Distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary amines
15B.7 Separation of mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines
15B.8 Some commercially important compounds
15B.9 Distinction between pairs of compounds




Part C. Cyanides and Isocyanides & Diazonium salts

Cyanides and Isocyanides
15C.1 Nomenclature of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.2 Preparation of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.3 Physical properties of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.4 Chemical properties of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.5 Uses of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.6 Distinction between cyanide and ethyl isocyanide
Practice Problems 15C.1 to 15C.4

Diazonium salts

15.7 Nomenclature Diazonium salts
15.8 Preparation of Diazonium salts
15.9 Physical properties of Diazonium salts
15.10 Chemical properties of Diazonium salts
15.11 Importance of Benzene Diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry






Sections in the chapter spread over three parts

Part A Nitro compounds

15A.1 Nomenclature of nitro compounds
15.2 Preparation of nitro compounds
15.3 Physical properties of nitro compounds
15.4 Chemical properties of nitro compounds
15.5 Uses of nitro compounds
15.6 Distinction between nitroalkanes and alkyl nitrites
15.7 Some commercially important compounds


Part B Amines

15B.1 Nomenclature of amines
15.2 Isomerism in amines
15B.3 Preparation of amines
15B.4 Industrial Preparation of amines
15B.5 Physical properties of amines
15B.5B Chemical properties of amines
15B.6 Distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary amines
15B.7 Separation of mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines
15B.8 Some commercially important compounds
15B.9 Distinction between pairs of compounds




Part C. Cyanides and Isocyanides & Diazonium salts

Cyanides and Isocyanides
15C.1 Nomenclature of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.2 Preparation of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.3 Physical properties of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.4 Chemical properties of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.5 Uses of Cyanides and Isocyanides
15.6 Distinction between cyanide and ethyl isocyanide
Practice Problems 15C.1 to 15C.4

Diazonium salts

15.7 Nomenclature Diazonium salts
15.8 Preparation of Diazonium salts
15.9 Physical properties of Diazonium salts
15.10 Chemical properties of Diazonium salts
15.11 Importance of Benzene Diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry

11. Nuclear Chemistry - JEE Main - Core Revision Points

Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.


11.1 Natural Radioactivity:Discovery and historical development
11.2 Nature and characteristics of Radioactive rays
11.3 Nuclear structure and nuclear forces
11.4 Nuclear reactions and group displacement law
Practice Problems: 11.1 to 11.8
11.5 Radioactive disintegration series
11.6 Rate of radioactivity decay
P.P. 11.9 to 11.16
11.7 Artificial transmutation of elements
11.8 Artificial or induced radioactivity
P.P. 11.17 to 11.20
11.9 Nuclear energy
P.P. 11.21 to 11.24
11.10 Nuclear fission
11.11 Atomic bomb and Nuclear reactor
11.12 Nuclear Fusion
P.P. 11.25 to 11.26
11.13 Synthetic elements
11.14 Radioactive isotopes and their uses
P.P. 11.27 to 11.38
11.15 Hazards of Nuclear radiations





11.1 Natural Radioactivity:Discovery and historical development
11.2 Nature and characteristics of Radioactive rays
11.3 Nuclear structure and nuclear forces
11.4 Nuclear reactions and group displacement law
Practice Problems: 11.1 to 11.8
11.5 Radioactive disintegration series
11.6 Rate of radioactivity decay
P.P. 11.9 to 11.16
11.7 Artificial transmutation of elements
11.8 Artificial or induced radioactivity
P.P. 11.17 to 11.20
11.9 Nuclear energy
P.P. 11.21 to 11.24
11.10 Nuclear fission
11.11 Atomic bomb and Nuclear reactor
11.12 Nuclear Fusion
P.P. 11.25 to 11.26
11.13 Synthetic elements
11.14 Radioactive isotopes and their uses
P.P. 11.27 to 11.38
11.15 Hazards of Nuclear radiations

JEE Main - Chapters - Modern Chemistry for Class XII by Dr. S.P. Jauhar

1. Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Study Plan  - May  - 15 days   1 to 15 May

Core Revision Points

2. Solid State

Study Plan - May - 10 Days   16 to 25 May

Core Revision Points

3. Solutions

Study Plan  15 Days   26 May to 30 May - 1 June to 10 June

Core Revision Points

4. Chemical Thermodynamics

Study Plan -  15 Days  June  11 to 25

Core Revision Points

5. Electrochemistry

Study Plan  -  15 Days June  26 to 30, July 1 to 10

Core Revision Points

6. Chemical Kinetics

Study Plan - 15 Days  July 11 to 25

Core Revision Points

7. Surface Chemistry

Study Plan - 10 days  July 25 to 30, 1 to 5 August

Core Revision Points

8. p-Block Elements

Study Plan - 15 days  6 to 20 August

Core Revision Points

9. d and f -Block Elements

Study Plan - 10 Days  21 to 30 August

Core Revision Points

10. Co-ordination Compounds and Organometallics

Study Plan - 10 Days   1 to 10 September

Core Revision Points

11. Nuclear Chemistry

Study Plan - 15 Days   11 to 25 September

Core Revision Points

A Preview of Organic Chemistry  - 9 Days of slack time is there in the year.

Study Plan

Core Revision Points

12. Stereochemistry

Study Plan - 11 Days  26 to 30 September   1 to 6 October

Core Revision Points

13. Organic Compounds with functional Groups Containing Oxygen - I (Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers)

Study Plan - 15 Days  - 7 to 21 Ocotber

Core Revision Points

14. Organic Compounds with functional Groups Containing Oxygen – II (Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives)

Study Plan - 15 Days - 22 to 30 October,  1 to 6 November

Core Revision Points

15. Organic Compounds with functional Groups Containing Nitrogen (Nitro, Amino, Cyano and Diazo Compounds)

Study Plan - 15 Days  - 7 to 21 November

Core Revision Points

16. Polymers

Study Plan - 10 Days  - 22 to 30 November, 1 December

Core Revision Points

17. Biomolecules

Study Plan - 10 Days  - 2 to 11 December

Core Revision Points

18. Chemistry in Everyday Life

Study Plan - 10 Days  - 12 to 21 December

Core Revision Points




Updated 23 May 2015
First published on 20 Dec 2014

JEE Main 2016 - 2015 - 2016 Chemistry Study Plan

1. Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding

Study Plan  - May  - 15 days   1 to 15 May

Core Revision Points

2. Solid State

Study Plan - May - 10 Days   16 to 25 May

Core Revision Points

3. Solutions

Study Plan  15 Days   26 May to 30 May - 1 June to 10 June

Core Revision Points

4. Chemical Thermodynamics

Study Plan -  15 Days  June  11 to 25

Core Revision Points

5. Electrochemistry

Study Plan  -  15 Days June  26 to 30, July 1 to 10

Core Revision Points

6. Chemical Kinetics

Study Plan - 15 Days  July 11 to 25

Core Revision Points

7. Surface Chemistry

Study Plan - 10 days  July 25 to 30, 1 to 5 August

Core Revision Points

8. p-Block Elements

Study Plan - 15 days  6 to 20 August

Core Revision Points

9. d and f -Block Elements

Study Plan - 10 Days  21 to 30 August

Core Revision Points

10. Co-ordination Compounds and Organometallics

Study Plan - 10 Days   1 to 10 September

Core Revision Points

11. Nuclear Chemistry

Study Plan - 15 Days   11 to 25 September

Core Revision Points

A Preview of Organic Chemistry  - 9 Days of slack time is there in the year.

Study Plan

Core Revision Points

12. Stereochemistry

Study Plan - 11 Days  26 to 30 September   1 to 6 October

Core Revision Points

13. Organic Compounds with functional Groups Containing Oxygen - I (Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers)

Study Plan - 15 Days  - 7 to 21 Ocotber

Core Revision Points

14. Organic Compounds with functional Groups Containing Oxygen – II (Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids and their Derivatives)

Study Plan - 15 Days - 22 to 30 October,  1 to 6 November

Core Revision Points

15. Organic Compounds with functional Groups Containing Nitrogen (Nitro, Amino, Cyano and Diazo Compounds)

Study Plan - 15 Days  - 7 to 21 November

Core Revision Points

16. Polymers

Study Plan - 10 Days  - 22 to 30 November, 1 December

Core Revision Points

17. Biomolecules

Study Plan - 10 Days  - 2 to 11 December

Core Revision Points

18. Chemistry in Everyday Life

Study Plan - 10 Days  - 12 to 21 December

Core Revision Points




23 May 2015

Thursday, May 21, 2015

17. Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Halogens - JEE Main - Core Points for Revision

Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.


Sections in the Chapter of Jauhar

17.1 Classification of halogen Derivatives of Hydrocarbons
17.2 Nomenclature of Haloalkanes
17.3 Nomenclature of Aryl Halides
17.4 isomerism in Haloalkanes
17.5 Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes
17.6 General Methods of Preparation of Haloarenes
17.7 Physical Properties of haloalkanes
17.8 Physical Properties of haloarenes
17.9 Nature of C-X Bond
17.10 Chemical Properties of Haloalkanes
17.11 Chemical Properties of Haloarenes
17.12 Some Commercially Important Compounds
17.13 Analysis and Difference Between Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Chapter 16. Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds - JEE Main Core Revision Points


Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.

Text Book Modern's abc of Chemistry CBSE Class XI

Sections in the chapter


16.1 Purification of Organic Compounds
16.2 Qualitative Analysis
16.3 Quantitative Analysis
16.4 Determination of Molecular Mass
16.5 Mass Spectrometer
16.6 Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula
16.7 Modern Methods of Structural Elucidation