Wednesday, May 3, 2017

1.9 Atoms and Molecules - Revision Points

Atoms are the smallest particle of an element which may or may not have independent existence, but it takes part in chemical reactions.

Molecule is the smallest particle of a substance (element or compound) capable of independent existence.

There are 112 elements in nature as per the present knowledge. Obviously there are 112 different types of atoms.

Molecules may have two or more atoms. Molecules are divided into two types:

1. Homoatomic molecules

2. Heteroatomic molecules



Tuesday, May 2, 2017

1.7 Dalton's Atomic Theory Revision points

7. Dalton’s atomic theory

To provide theoretical justification to the laws of chemical combination which are experimentally verified, John Dalton postulated a simple theory of matter. The basic postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory are:

a. Matter is made up of extremely small indivisible and indestructible ultimate particles called atoms.
b. Atoms the same element are identical in all respects ie., in shape, size, mass and chemical properties.
c. Atoms of different elements are different in all respects and have different masses and chemical properties.
d. Atom is the smallest unit that takes part in chemical combinations.
d. Atoms of two or more elements combine in a simpler whole number ratio to form compound atoms (molecules).
e. Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed during any physical or chemical change.
f. Chemical reactions involve only combinations, separation or rearrangement of atoms.

Modern atomic theory
As a result of new discoveries made after Dalton developed his postulates, some modifications were done to atomic theory. They are:

1. Atom is no longer considered to be indivisible: It is found that atom is made up of subatomic particles such as electrons, protons and neutrons. We now state how many electrons are there, protons are there in an atom.

2. Atoms of same element may not be similar in all respects. Atoms of same elements have different atomic masses. These different atoms are called isotopes.

3. Atoms of different elements may have similar one or more properties. Atomic mass of calcium and argon (40 a.m.u.) are same. So the property of atomic mass is same for atoms of different elements. Isobars or elements or atoms having the same atomic mass.

4. Atom is the smallest unit which takes part in chemical reactions. Though electrons and protons are there, it is atom which takes part in chemical reactions and electrons exchange takes place between atoms.

5. The ratio in which the different atoms combine may be fixed and integral but may not always be simple. For example in sugar molecule the ratio of C,H and O atoms is 12:22:11, which is not simple.

6. Atom of one elements may be changed into atoms of other element. Transmutation is the process by which atoms one element can be changed inot elements of other elements by subjecting it to alpha rays.

7. The mass of atom can changed into energy. Mass and energy are inconvertible. The equation give for such conversion is E mc². Hence we cannot say that mass is not destructible. But in chemical reactions, atom remains unchanged and its mass is not destroyed to liberate energy.

Updated 4 May 2017, 4 feb 2008

1.18 Stochiometry of Reactions in Solutions

Many reactions are carried out in aqueous solutions. In this case their concentration is important measure. The amounts of the products of a reaction can be calculated from the volumes of the solutions of the reactants and their concentrations. In the book, the calculations are illustrated through examples.

Stochiometry of Reactions in Solutions

Khan Academy

More to read  - Open book project.  Refer to the site for more topics.