Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Ch.1 Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding - JEE Main Core Revision Points

Importance of  Core Revision Points: Core Revision Points are important because if you remember them strongly, many more points related to them will come out of your memory and help you to answer question and problems. Read them many times and make sure you remember them very strongly.

Sections in the Chapter

1.1 Dual Nature of Radiation
1.2 Dual Nature of Matter - de-Broglie Equation
1.3 Heisengberg's Uncertainty Principle
1.4 Wave Mechanical Model of Atom and Concept of Atomic Orbital
1.5 Quantum Numbers

1.6 Pauli's Exclusion Principles
1.7 Orbital Wave Functions and Shapes of Orbitals
1.8 Electronic Configurations of Atoms
1.9 Chemical Bonding
1.10 Review of Valency Bond Theory

1.11 Molecular Orbital Theory
1.12 Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) Method
1.13 Relative Energies of Bonding and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals
1.14 Combination of 2s and 2p Atomic Orbitals to form Molecular Orbitals
1.15 Conditions for the Combination of Atomic Orbitals

1.16 Energy Level diagram for Molecular Orbitals
1.17 Rules for Filling Molecualr Orbitals
1.18 Electronic Configurations and Molecular Behavior
1.19 Bonding in Some Diatomic Molecules
1.20 Metallic Bond

1.21 Hybridisation
1.22 Intermolecular Forces
1.23 Hydrogen Bonding



Revision Points for Various Sections in the Chapter


1.1 Dual Nature of Radiation

Einstein in 1905 suggested that light has a dual character - Particle nature as well as wave.

Wave like character of light was proposed by Huygens.  In 1856, James Maxwell proposed that light and other forms of radiation propagate though space in the form of waves and these waves have electric and magnetic fields associated with it. Therefore, the light which is travelling through radiation is said  to be composed of electromagnetic waves.

Planck's Quantum Theory of Radiation



1.2 Dual Nature of Matter - de-Broglie Equation

In 1924, Louis de Broglie suggested that similar to light, all microscopic material particles in motion have dual character.

1.3 Heisengberg's Uncertainty Principle


Uncertainty principle

In 1927, Heisenberg put forward a principle known as Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.

According it, “it is not possible to measure simultaneously both the position and momentum (or velocity) of a microscopic particle, with absolute accuracy.”

Mathematically, this principle is expressed as:

∆x * ∆p = h/4 π

Where
∆x = uncertainty in position

∆p = uncertainty in momentum

The constancy of the product of uncertainties means that, if the position of the particle is known with more accuracy, there will be large uncertainty in momentum and vice versa.

This uncertainty arises, as all observations are made by impact of light, the microscopic objects suffer a change in position or velocity as a result of impact of light. So there is a disturbance in them due to the measurement.

The principle does not affect the measurement of large objects as in these cases impact of light does not created any appreciable change in their position or velocity.

1.4 Wave Mechanical Model of Atom and Concept of Atomic Orbital


Quantum mechanics or wave mechanics is a theoretical science which deals with the study of the motion of the microscopic objects (like electron) which have both observable wave like and particle like properties.

Quantum mechanics was developed indepdendently in 1926 by Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrodinger. In 1927, Schrodinger wave equation was published.

1.5 Quantum Numbers


According to quantum mechanical model or wave mechanical model of atom, orbitals represent regions in space around the nucleus where the probability of finding electrons is maximum. A large number of orbitals are possible in an atom.

To describe each electron in an atom in different orbitals, four quantum numbers are used. They are designated as n,l,ml, and ms.



1. Principal quantum number (n) This quantum number determines the main energy shell or level in which the electron is present. It can have whole number values starting from 1 in an atom.

The principle quantum number indicates the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. If n = 1, it is closest to the nucleus and has lowest energy.

Eariest practice was to number shells as K,L,M,N etc.
Shell with principal quantum number n = 1 is called K.
Shell with principal quantum number n = 2 is called etc.

2. Azimuthal quantum number or angular quantum number (l): This number determines the angular momentum of the electron.

It can have positive integer values from zero to (n-1) where n is the principal quantum number. For each value of n, there are n possible values of l.

For n =3, l has three values: l = 0,1,2

The earlier practice is to designate l as subshell and refer it by letters s,p,d,f,….

l=0 = s; l=1=p; l=2=d, l=3=f etc.

The energy of subshell increases with increasing value of l.

3. Magnetic quantum number ( ml): Magnetic field acts on moving electrical charges. ( from chapters on magnetism in physics syllabus). On revolving electrons external magnetic field of the earth acts. Therefore, the electrons in a given subshell orient themselves in certain preferred regions space around the nucleus. These are called orbitals. This quantum number gives the number of orbitals for given angular quantum number l or in a given subshell.

The allowed values of ml are –l through 0 to +l.

There are (2l+1) values of ml for each value of l.

If l = 0, ml has only one value. ml = 0.

If l = 3, ml has 7 values.
ml = -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3

4. Spin quantum number (ms) : It is observed that the electron in an atom is not only revolving around the nucleus but is also spinning around its own axis. This quantum number describes the spin orientation of the electron.

The electron can spin in two ways – clockwise and anticlockwise.
Values of +1/2 and -1/2 are given to this quantum number. Its value is not dependent on other quantum numbers.

The orientations of spin are also designated by up and down arrows ↑ ↓.

1.6 Pauli's Exclusion Principles


Pauli's exclusion principle: No two electrons can have all four same quantum numbers

1.7 Orbital Wave Functions and Shapes of Orbitals

1. Spherical shape for s.
2. Dumbbell shape for orbitals of p.
3. Four-lobed shape for orbitals of d.
4. Complex shape for all orbitals of higher sublevels

1.8 Electronic Configurations of Atoms

1. Aufbau principles
2. Pauli's exclusion principle: No two electrons can have all four same quantum numbers
3. Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity

1.9 Chemical Bonding

1. Valency bond theory 2. Molecular orbital theory

1.10 Review of Valency Bond Theory

Valency bond theory was proposed by Heitler and London in 1927 and it was further developed by Linus Pauling.

The basic idea of the theory are:

1. A covalent bond is formed by the overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals of the different atoms.
2. The overlapping atomic orbitals must have electrons with opposite spins.


1.11 Molecular Orbital Theory

This theory was proposed by Hund and Mulliken in 1932. The basic idea of the theory is that atomic orbitals of individual atoms combine to form molecular orbitals.

1.12 Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) Method

According to LCAO method, the orbitals are formed by the linear combination (addition or subtraction) of atomic orbitals of the atoms which form the molecule.


1.13 Relative Energies of Bonding and Antibonding Molecular Orbitals
1.14 Combination of 2s and 2p Atomic Orbitals to form Molecular Orbitals

2s-orbitals combine by addition and subtraction to form bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals.

1.15 Conditions for the Combination of Atomic Orbitals

Main Conditions for the Combination of Atomic Orbitals

1. The combining atomic orbitals should  not differ much in energies.
2. The extent of overlapping between the atomic orbitals of two atoms should be large.
3. The combining atomic orbitals between the atomic orbitals of two atoms should be large.

1.16 Energy Level diagram for Molecular Orbitals

1.17 Rules for Filling Molecualr Orbitals

1. Aufbau principles
2. Pauli's exclusion principle: No two electrons can have all four same quantum numbers
3. Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity

1.18 Electronic Configurations and Molecular Behavior

The important information conveyed by Electron Configuration of a molecule is:

1. Stability of a molecule
2. Bond Order

1.19 Bonding in Some Diatomic Molecules

1. Hydrogen molecule.

1.20 Metallic Bond

More than 80 elements in the periodic table are metals.
The force which holds together atoms of metals is called metallic bond.

1.21 Hybridisation

Hybridizastion is the phenomenon of intermixing of the orbitals of slightly different energies so as to redistribute their energies and to give new set of orbitals of equivalent energy and shape.

1.22 Intermolecular Forces

In addition to normal covalent bond, ionic bond, and metallic bond, there are weak attractive intermolecular forces which occur in all kinds of molecular solids. These are present in case of non-polar molecules such as H2, O2, CO2, CH4 etc. also.

These are classified as:
i) Dipole-dipole forces
ii) Dipole induced dipole forces
iii) Instantaneous dipole-instantaneous induced dipole forces (called London forces)
iv) Hydrogen bonding

1.23 Hydrogen Bonding

When hydrogen atom is bonded to atoms of highly electronegative elements such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen, the hydrogen atom forms a weak bond with the electronegative atom of the other molecule.


Updated 4 May 2016
First Posted on 23 May 2015

Sunday, May 1, 2016

JEE - Study Guide - 3. Atomic Structure

Text Book
Modern's abc of Chemistry by Dr. S.P. Jauhar for Class XI CBSE

Sections in the Chapter

3.1 Fundamental particles
3.2 Thomson’s Atomic Model
3.3 Rutherford’s Scattering Experiment
3.4 Concept of Atomic Number and Discovery of Neutron
3.5 Developments Leading to the Bohr Model of Atom
3.6 Nature of Light and Electromagnetic Radiation
3.7 Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation and Planck’s Quantum Theory
3.8 Atomic Spectra
3.9 Failure of Rutherford Model
3.10 Concept of Energy Levels or Orbits
3.11 Modern Concept of Structure of an Atom: Quantum Mechanical Model
3.12 Wave Mechanical Model of Atom and Concept of Atomic Orbital
3.13 Quantum Numbers
3.14 Pauli’s Exclusion Principle
3.15 Shapes of Orbitals or Boundary Surface Diagrams
3.16 Energy Level Diagram for Electrons in an Atom
3.17 Electronic Configuration of Atoms


Conceptual Questions with Answers: 35
Additional Numerical Problems for Practice: 8
Revision Exercises
Very Short Answer questions 16
Short Answer Questions 42
Long Answer Questions 3

Competition File
Numerical Problems 20
Objective Questions: 47
Fill in the blanks: 10
True or False: 10


Study Plan

Day 1

3.1 Fundamental particles
3.2 Thomson’s Atomic Model
3.3 Rutherford’s Scattering Experiment

Day 2

3.4 Concept of Atomic Number and Discovery of Neutron
Ex. 3.1 to 3.3
Practice Problems 3.1 to 3.9

Day 3

3.5 Developments Leading to the Bohr Model of Atom
3.6 Nature of Light and Electromagnetic Radiation

Ex. 3.4, 3.5,3.6
P.P. 3.10 to 3.15



Day 4

3.7 Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation and Planck’s Quantum Theory
Ex. 3.7 to 3.16

Day 5
P.P 3.16 to 3.24

Day 6
3.8 Atomic Spectra
Ex. 3.17, 3.18
P.P. 3.25 t 3.27

3.9 Failure of Rutherford Model

Day 7
3.9 Failure of Rutherford Model
3.10 Concept of Energy Levels or Orbits
Ex. 3.19 to 3.23
P.P 3.28 to 3.32

Day 8
Bohr’s Theory and Concept of Quantisation
3.11 Modern Concept of Structure of an Atom: Quantum Mechanical Model
Ex. 3.24 to 3.29
P.P. 3.33, 3.34

Day 9

3.12 Wave Mechanical Model of Atom and Concept of Atomic Orbital

3.13 Quantum Numbers
3.14 Pauli’s Exclusion Principle


Day 10
Ex. 3.30 to 3.33
P.P. 3.35 to 3.37

3.15 Shapes of Orbitals or Boundary Surface Diagrams


Day 11

3.16 Energy Level Diagram for Electrons in an Atom
3.17 Electronic Configuration of Atoms

Day 12
P.P 3.38 to 3.46

Revision Period

Day 13
Conceptual Questions with Answers: 1 to 18

Day 14

Conceptual Questions with Answers: 19 to 35

Day 15
Additional Numerical Problems for Practice: 8

Day 16
Very Short Answer questions 16

Day 17
Short Answer Questions 42

Day 18
Study Competition File

Day 19
Numerical Problems 1 to 10

Day 20
Numerical Problems 11 to 20
Day 21

Objective Questions: 1 to 24

Day 22
Objective Questions: 25 to 47

Day 23

Fill in the blanks: 10

Day 24

True or False: 10


Updated 1 May 2016,  11 Mar 2009

IIT JEE Chemistry - Class XII - Study Guide - 3. Solutions

Sections in the Chapter

3.1 Types of solutions
3.2 Methods for expressing the concentration of a solution: units of solution
P.P. 3.1 to 3.20
3.3 Solubilioty of gases and solids in liquids
3.4 Vapour pressure of solutions
3.5 Ideal and Nonideal solutions
P.P. 3.21 to 3.27
3.6 Colligative properties
3.7 Relative lowering of vapour pressure
P.P. 3.28 to 3.34
3.8 Elevation in boiling point
P.P. 3.35 to 3.40
3.9 Depression in freezing point
3.41 to 3.48
3.10 Osmosis and osmotic pressure
P.P. 3.49 to 3.57
3.11 Electrolytic solutions – Abnormal molar masses
P.P. 3.58 to 3.68


Additional Numerical Problems for Practice: 21

Conceptual Questions with Answers: 29
Key facts to remember
Additional Numerical Problems for Practice: 8
Revision Exercises
Very Short Answer questions 21
Short Answer Questions 66
Long Answer Questions 21

Competition File
Numerical Problems 29
Multiple choice questions: 40
Fill in the blanks: 10
True or False: 10


Study Plan

May 26 to 30

Day 1

3.1 Types of solutions
3.2 Methods for expressing the concentration of a solution: units of solution

Day 2

P.P. 3.1 to 3.20

Day 3
3.3 Solubility of gases and solids in liquids
3.4 Vapour pressure of solutions
3.5 Ideal and Nonideal solutions

Day 4

P.P. 3.21 to 3.27
3.6 Colligative properties
3.7 Relative lowering of vapour pressure
P.P. 3.28 to 3.34

Day 5

3.8 Elevation in boiling point
P.P. 3.35 to 3.40

June 1 to 10

Day 6
3.9 Depression in freezing point
3.41 to 3.48

Day 7
3.10 Osmosis and osmotic pressure
P.P. 3.49 to 3.57

Day 8
3.11 Electrolytic solutions – Abnormal molar masses
P.P. 3.58 to 3.68

Day 9

Additional Numerical Problems for Practice: 21


Day 10
Conceptual Questions with Answers: 29

Day 11
Key facts to remember
Additional Numerical Problems for Practice: 8

Day 12
Revision Exercises: Very Short Answer questions 21

Day 13
Revision Exercises: Short Answer Questions 1 to 3366

Day 14
Revision Exercises: Short Answer Questions 34 to 66

Day 15
Competition File: Numerical Problems 1to 20

June 11 onwards

Revision Period
Day 16
Competition File: Numerical Problems 21to 29

Day 17
Multiple choice questions: 1 to 20

Day 18
Multiple choice questions: 21 to 40

Day 19
Fill in the blanks: 10

Day 20
True or False: 10

Day 21 to 30
Concept revision, formula revision, Test paper problem solving



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Updated 1 May 2016,  3 Jan 2016, 11 March 2009

JEE - Study Guide - 2. Solid State



JEE Syllabus (2015)

Solid State: Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.





Jauhar, CBSE XII class

Sections in the Chapter

2.1 Space Lattices and Unit Cell
2.2 Close Packing in Crystalline Solids
2.3 Interstitial Sites or Interstitial Voids
2.4 Types of Cubic Crystals and Number of Atoms per Unit Cell
2.5 Experimental Methods of Determining Crystal Structure: X Rays Diffraction
2.6 Coordination Number and Radius Ratio
2.7 Ionic Radii
2.8 Calculation of Density of a Crystal from its Structure
2.9 Strctures of Ionic Compounds
2.10 Imperfections in solids
2.11 Properties of solids
2.12 Amorphous solids



Additional numerical problems for practice 12
Conceptual Questions with Answers: 13
Key facts to remember
Revision Exercises: Very Short Answer questions 40
Short Answer Questions : 50
Long Answer Questions : 6

Competition File
Some useful facts
numerical problems 9

Objective Questions: Multiple choice 25
Fill in the blanks: 10
Matching type question 1

Study Plan

Day 1

2.1 Space Lattices and Unit Cell
2.2 Close Packing in Crystalline Solids
2.3 Interstitial Sites or Interstitial Voids

Day 2
2.4 Types of Cubic Crystals and Number of Atoms per Unit Cell
Practice problems 2.1 to 2.3

Day 3

2.5 Experimental Methods of Determining Crystal Structure: X Rays Diffraction
P.P. 2.4,2.5
2.6 Coordination Number and Radius Ratio
P.P. 2.14 to 2.17

Day 4

2.7 Ionic Radii
2.8 Calculation of Density of a Crystal from its Structure

Day 5
P.P. 2.8 to 2.19

Day 6

2.9 Structures of Ionic Compounds
P.P 2.20 to 2.25

Day 7
2.10 Imperfections in solids
2.11 Properties of solids
2.12 Amorphous solids

Day 8


Concept revision
Additional numerical problems for practice 12

Day 9


Conceptual Questions with Answers: 13
Key facts to remember

Day 10

Revision Exercises: Very Short Answer questions 40

Revision period

Day 11
Revision Exercises:Short Answer Questions : 1 to 15

Day 12
Revision Exercises:Short Answer Questions : 16 to 30

Day 13
Revision Exercises:Short Answer Questions : 31 to 50

Day 14

Competition File
Some useful facts
numerical problems 9

Day 15

Objective Questions: Multiple choice 25

Day 16
Fill in the blanks: 10
Matching type question 1

Day 17 to 20

Concept revision and test paper questions/problems




Updated   1 May 2016,  6 June 2015
Originally published 11 March 2009

Saturday, April 9, 2016

Chemistry Knowledge History - April




Chemistry History
http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/April.html





April 1
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji born 1933: cooling of atoms by interactions with laser light; Nobel Prize (physics), 1997.

G. N. Lewis's article, "The Atom and the Molecule," containing Lewis dot structures is published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1916 (April issue, nominal publication date April 1).

Sergei Nikolaevich Reformatskii (Reformatsky) born 1860: synthesis of organozinc halides (Reformatsky reaction).

Julian Stone reported in Applied Physics Letters that a new quartz fiber filled with tetrachloroethylene may be able to carry light, 1972.

Richard Adolf Zsigmondy born 1865: explained heterogeneous nature of colloidal suspensions; introduced the ultramicroscope for study of colloids; Nobel Prize, 1925. View Zsigmondy's book Colloids and the Ultramicroscope.

April 2
Carl Alsberg born 1877: food chemistry;

Francis Crick and James Dewey Watson mailed brief article on the double-helix structure of DNA to Nature in 1953; view a typescript of the article.

Charles Martin Hall obtains US patent 400,766 for an electrolytic process for producing aluminum in 1886.

April 3

First meeting of the Electrochemical Society of America (now simply the Electrochemical Society), at the Manufacturers' Club, Philadelphia.

April 4

Otto Folin born 1867: clinical chemistry; Folin-Wu reagent for glucose analysis.

Johan Peter Klason born 1848: lignin chemistry.

Raoul Pierre Pictet born 1846: liquefaction of oxygen.

Ira Remsen was awarded the first Priestley Medal in 1923.

Synthesis of vitamin B6 announced by Merck, Sharp & Dohme in 1939.

April 5

Richard Chenevix born 1774: mineralogist; chemistry of platinum (Pt, element 78) and palladium (Pd, 46).

Norman Davidson born 1916: ion channels and neurotransmitters.

Marshall Gates and Gilg Tschudi announced synthesis of morphine, 1956.

Joseph Lister born 1827: antiseptics such as carbolic acid (phenol); read part of his report.

April 6

First official organizational meeting of the American Chemical Society held at New York University in 1876.

Edmond Henri Fischer born 1920: protein phosphorylation and its role in biological regulation; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1992.

Feodor Lynen born 1911: biosynthesis of cholesterol; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1964.

Richard Macy Noyes born 1919: chemical kinetics; oscillating chemical reactions.

Roy Plunkett accidentally polymerized Freons producing polytetrafluoroethylene, better known as Teflon (US patent 2,230,654), 1938.

James Walker born 1863: hydrolysis, ionization constants, and amphoteric electrolytes with organic compounds.

James Dewey Watson born 1928: double-helix structure of DNA; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1962.
April 7

Louis Frederick Fieser born 1899: organic chemistry (synthesis and aromatic compounds); invented napalm; coauthor (with wife Mary) of Reagents for Organic Synthesis

Louis Plack Hammett born 1894: physical organic chemistry; structure-activity relationships;
Hammett equation for linear free-energy relationships

Heinrich Hlasiwetz [auf Deutsch] born 1825: protein analysis.

New law established metric system and nomenclature in France, 1795.

Joseph Priestley left England to move to the United States, 1794. A mob hostile to his politically and religiously liberal views had destroyed his home and made him unwelcome in Birmingham.

Walter Stockmayer born 1914: statistical mechanics and dynamics of polymers.

April 8

Melvin Calvin born 1911: research in photosynthesis; Nobel Prize, 1961.

August Wilhelm von Hofmann born 1818: coal tar; organic nitrogen chemistry, particularly dyes; founding president of the German Chemical Society.

Joseph Kenyon born 1885: organic chemistry, stereochemistry and mechanism of nucleophilic substitution.

April 9

F. Albert Cotton born 1930: inorganic chemistry and chemical bonding (metal carbonyls, metal-metal bonds); 1998 Priestley Medal.

Dorothy Anna Hahn born 1876: chemical valence;

Ignacio Tinoco, Jr., proposed a simple method for deducing secondary structure of ribonucleic acid (RNA) from nucleotide sequence, 1971.

Elizabeth Kreiser Weisburger born 1924: investigation of chemical carcinogenesis at the molecular level;

April 10

Arnold Beckman born 1900: chemist and inventor; founder of Beckman Instruments (now Beckman Coulter). View US patent 2,058,761 for pH meter.

Arnold Collins made the synthetic rubber called polychloroprene (also known as neoprene), 1930.

Marshall Warren Nirenberg born 1927: cracking the genetic code (i.e., correlation of nucleic-acid sequence to protein structure); Nobel Prize (medicine), 1968.

Robert Burns Woodward born 1917: stereoselective organic synthesis; synthesis of natural products;

Woodward-Hoffmann rules on orbital symmetry; Nobel Prize, 1965.


April 11

Percy Lavon Julian born 1899: synthesis of physostigmine; preparation of cortisone (US patent 2,752,339).


Hugh Christopher Longuet-Higgins born 1923: multicenter bonds in boranes and other compounds; conjugation.

Ernest Volwiler and Donalee Tabern received US patent number 2,153,729 for sodium pentothal as a general anaesthetic, 1939.

Robert Burns Woodward and William von Eggers Doering reported a formal synthesis of quinine in 1944.

April 12

Marie Curie watched as one of her professors, Gabriel Lippmann, presented her exhaustive survey of radioactivity in natural substances, which presents evidence for substances much more radioactive than uranium, 1898.

Otto Fritz Meyerhof born 1884: muscle metabolism; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1922.

Thomas Thomson born 1773: early advocate of Dalton's atomic hypothesis and Prout's hypothesis; edited Annals of Philosophy.  History of Chemistry

Georges Urbain born 1872: codiscoverer of lutetium (Lu, element 71); discovered the law of optimum phosphorescence of binary systems.

April 13

Torbern Bergman confirmed Müller von Reichenstein's finding that the substance isolated from a bismuth ore was a new element, tellurium (Te, element 52), 1784.

Michael Stuart Brown born 1941: cholesterol metabolism and its regulation; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1985.

April 14

Alan MacDiarmid born 1927: conducting polymers; Nobel Prize, 2000.

NASA's Nimbus III weather satellite made first civilian use of nuclear batteries (radioisotope thermoelectric generators), 1969.

April 15

Johann Balmer published the observation that certain spectral frequencies of hydrogen are related by a simple mathematical formula (Balmer series), 1885.

William Cullen born 1710: noted the cooling effects of evaporation and of gas expansion.

Catherine Clarke Fenselau born 1939: mass spectrometry and its application to biochemistry; Garvan Medal, 1985.

Albert Ghiorso announced the discovery of Rutherfordium (Rf, element 104) with coworkers (Ghiorso at right) at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1969.

Robert Gore born: inventor of Gore-Tex fabric (waterproof fabric that "breathes") from expanded polytetrafluoroethylene; Perkin Medal, 2005. US patent Patent 3,953,566.

Carol Greider born 1961: telomerase; Nobel Prize (medicine), 2009.

Nikolai Nikolaevich Semenov born 1896: chemical kinetics; theory of chain reactions; Nobel Prize, 1956.

Ernest Solvay received patent entitled "Industrial Production of Sodium Carbonate by Means of Marine Salt, Ammonia, and Carbon Dioxide" (Solvay process) in 1861.

April 16

Joseph Black born 1728: latent heat and specific heat; foundation for modern quantitative analysis.

Marie Maynard Daly born 1921: first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in chemistry (Columbia University, 1948)

Humphry Davy performed first physiological experiment on nitrous oxide by inhaling it, 1799. (Don't try this at home!) Read his report.

Albert Hofmann discovered the hallucinogenic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), 1943. (Link to US National Drug Intelligence Center's LSD Fast Facts.)

Ernest Solvay born 1838: chemical manufacturer and Belgian government minister; Solvay process for sodium carbonate production.
Sidney Gilchrist Thomas born 1850: effected the separation of phosphorus from iron in the Bessemer converter.

April 17

First oil well fire, at Little and Merrick well, Oil City, PA, 1861.

Robert Robertson born 1869: explosives; amatol (ammonium nitrate/TNT); infrared spectroscopy.
April 18

Marston Taylor Bogert born 1868: synthesis of quinazolines and thiazoles.

Joseph Leonard Goldstein born 1940: cholesterol metabolism and its regulation; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1985.

George Herbert Hitchings born 1905: pharmaceutical chemistry; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1988.

Eugene Jules Houdry born 1892: commercial catalytic cracking of petroleum for gasoline production (Houdry process, first patent application in France; US patent 1,837,963) and catalytic cleaning of automobile exhaust.
Paul-Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran born 1838: discovered gallium (Ga, element 31), dysprosium (Dy, 66), and samarium (Sm, 62).
William Albert Noyes, Jr., born 1898: editor of Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1950-1962.
Joseph Priestley ignited a mixture of "inflammable air" (hydrogen) and common air, 1781, and noted that the explosion was not as powerful as can be obtained from gunpowder. He failed to recognize (as Cavendish, Lavoisier, and Watt did soon afterwards) that the two gases combine to form water.

April 19

Samuel Cox Hooker born 1864: sugar chemistry
Antoine Lavoisier claimed the right to the discovery of oxygen (O, element 8), arguing that he and Joseph Priestley discovered the same facts, but that he recognized the role of oxygen in combustion while Priestley explained it in terms of phlogiston theory, 1776. (This claim is treated fictionally in the play Oxygen by Carl Djerassi and Roald Hoffmann.)
Ines Hochmuth Mandl born 1917: biochemical basis of pulmonary emphysema; medicinal uses of collagenases, elastases, and their inhibitors; Garvan Medal, 1982
Monsanto incorporated, 1933.
François-Charles-Léon Moureu born 1863: organic chemistry; oxidation and antioxidants; first president of IUPAC.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg born 1912: codiscoverer of plutonium (Pu, element 94), americium (Am, 95), curium (Cm, 96), berkelium (Bk, 97), californium (Cf, 98), einsteinium (Es, 99), fermium (Fm, 100), mendelevium (Md, 101), nobelium (No, 102), and seaborgium (Sg, 106) (named by his coworkers); Nobel Prize, 1951.

April 20

Franz Karl Achard born 1753: introduced platinum crucible; invented process for extraction of sugar from sugar beets and opened the first beet sugar factory.
American Chemical Society organized, 1876, in New York City.
Wilhelm (or Guglielmo) Körner born 1839: isomerism in substituted benzenes (ortho, meta, and para).
Karl Alexander Müller born 1927: high-temperature superconducting materials; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1987.
Gertrude Perlmann born 1912: protein biochemistry, particularly phosphoproteins; Garvan Medal, 1965.
Kai Manne Siegbahn born 1918: electron spectroscopy; son of 1924 Nobel laureate X-ray spectroscopist Karl Siegbahn; Nobel Prize (physics), 1981.

April 21

Jean-Baptiste Biot born 1774: discovered optical activity; Biot-Savart law in electromagnetism.
Percy Williams Bridgman born 1882: effect of pressure on materials; showed that viscosity increases with high pressure; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1946.
Paul Karrer born 1889: synthesis of vitamins A, B2 (riboflavin), and E (tocopherol); Nobel Prize, 1937.
Nalco incorporated as National Aluminate Corporation, 1928.
Pfizer incorporated, 1900.

April 22

Donald James Cram born 1919: Nobel Prize, 1987, for synthetic molecules which imitate biomolecules.
First modern use of chemical weapons: chlorine gas at Ypres, 1915.
First Earth Day, 1970.

April 23

Max Planck born 1858: thermodynamics, particularly second law; introduced quantum theory and constant now known as Planck's constant; Nobel Prize (physics), 1918.

Rohm & Haas incorporated, 1917.

April 24

Roger Kornberg born 1947: genetic transcription in eukaryotic organisms; Nobel Prize, 2006.
Jean de Marignac born 1817: discovery of ytterbium (Yb, element 70) and gadolinium (Gd, element 64). Read some of Marignac's opinions on Prout's law and on atomic and equivalent weights (1 and 2).
Russell born 1898: invented klystron tube, founded Varian instruments (now Varian, Inc.) with brother Sigurd Varian.

April 25

Wolfgang Pauli born 1900: Pauli exclusion principle; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1945.
http://iit-jee-chemistry.blogspot.com/2008/01/iit-jee-ch3-atomic-structure-core.html

"Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid," by James Watson and Francis Crick, published in Nature, 1953.

April 26

Michael Smith born 1932: oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis of DNA; Nobel Prize, 1993.

April 27

Philip Hague Abelson born 1913: codiscovered neptunium (Np, element 93).

Wallace Carothers born 1896: macromolecules; invented nylon (US patents 2,130,947 and 2,130,948). Link to lab exercises in making nylon.

Andrew Fire born 1959: RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2006.
Albert Ghiorso (at right) and coworkers announced in 1970 discovery of element 105 (eventually named dubnium, Db) produced by bombarding californium-249 (249Cf) with nitrogen-15 (15N).
Charles James born 1880: separation of rare earth elements.

Antoine Lavoisier reported in 1775 that heated mercury forms red calx (HgO), while the surrounding air is reduced in volume and no longer supports combustion; heating the calx liberates oxygen.

April 28

Alfred Bader born 1924: founder of Aldrich Chemical (now part of Sigma-Aldrich)
Karl Barry Sharpless born 1941: catalytic oxidation, particularly stereoselective oxidation (e.g. Sharpless epoxidation), in organic synthesis; Nobel Prize, 2001

April 29

Atlantic Richfield Company incorporated, 1870.
Nashua incorporated as Nashua Card, Gummed and Coated Paper, 1904.
Harold Clayton Urey born 1893: isolated heavy water (D2O); co-discoverer of deuterium (2H); Nobel Prize, 1934.

April 30

Albert Ghiorso and coworkers announced the discovery of mendelevium (Md, 101) at the University of California, Berkeley, 1958.

Joseph John Thomson announced in 1897 the discovery of a body lighter than all known elements and a constituent of them all--the electron.  Thomson's  Nobel Prize address.

JEE Chemistry - May Study Topics with Links


JEE Main 2018 - (2016 - 2018) Study Plan
http://liit-jee.blogspot.com/2016/04/jee-main-2018-2016-2018-study-plan.html

JEE - Study Guide - 1. Some basic concepts of chemistry
http://iit-jee-chemistry.blogspot.com/2009/03/jee-study-guide-1-some-basic-concepts.html

1

Video Lectures 1.1 Importance of Studying Chemistry
http://iitchemvideos.blogspot.com/2016/04/video-lectures-11-importance-of.html

Video Lectures 1.2 Physical quantities and their S.I. Units
http://iitchemvideos.blogspot.com/2016/04/video-lectures-12-physical-quantities.html

Video Lectures 1.3 Dimensional Analysis
http://iitchemvideos.blogspot.com/2016/04/video-lectures-13-dimensional-analysis.html

JEE - Study Guide - 1. Some basic concepts of chemistry

Chapter 1 of Modern Chemistry for Class XI by Dr. S.P. Jauhar

Contents

1.1 Importance of Studying Chemistry
1.2 Physical quantities and their S.I. Units
1.3 Dimensional Analysis
1.4 Measurement and Significant Figures
1.5 Chemical Classification of Matter
1.6 Laws of Chemical Combination
1.7 Dalton Atomic Theory
1.8 Avogadro's Hypothesis
1.9 Atoms and Molecules
1.10 Atomic and Molecular Mass
1.11 Mole Concept
1.12 Mass-Mole Conversions
1.13 Percentage Composition and Molecular Formula
1.14 Stoichiometry of Chemical Equations
1.15 Stoichiometric Calculations
1.16 Limiting Reactant
1.17 Solution Stoichiometry
1.18 Stoichiometry of of Reactions in Solutions

The chapter is 100 pages

Study Plan

Basic plan is that each chapter is to be completed in 20 days. First 10 days theory portion is to be completed. Next 10 days, some revision of theory portion is to be done and some problems have to be done. In total 20 days all problems in the chapter have to be done. You have to mark all problems which you feel are difficult problems for a revision at a later date and for examinations.

Day 1

1.1 Importance of Studying Chemistry
      Video Lectures 1.1 Importance of Studying Chemistry
1.2 Physical quantities and their S.I. Units
      Video Lectures 1.2 Physical quantities and their S.I. Units
1.3 Dimensional Analysis
      Video Lectures 1.3 Dimensional Analysis

Ex. 1.1 to 1.5

Day 2

1.4 Measurement and Significant Figures
Ex. 1.6 to 1.14
Practice Problems 1.1 to 1.5


Day 3

1.5 Chemical Classification of Matter
1.6 Laws of Chemical Combination
Ex. 1.15 to 1.19
Practice Problems 1.9 to 1.12

Day 4

1.7 Dalton Atomic Theory
1.8 Avogadro's Hypothesis
1.9 Atoms and Molecules
1.10 Atomic and Molecular Mass

Ex. 1.20 to 1.23
Practice Problems 1.17 to 1.20

Day 5
P.P 1.21 to 1.25
P.P 1.26 to 1.30

Day 6

1.11 Mole Concept
Ex. 1.24 t0 1.25
1.12 Mass-Mole Conversions
Ex. 1.26 to 1.32

Day 7
Ex. 1.33 to 1.44

Day 8
P.P 1.31 to 1.45


Day 9

1.13 Percentage Composition and Molecular Formula
Ex. 1.45 to 1.52

Day 10
P.P. 1.46 ot 1.53
1.14 Stoichiometry of Chemical Equations

Day 11
Ex. 1.52 to 1.54
P.P. 1.54 to 1.55

Day 12
1.15 Stoichiometric Calculations

ex. 1.55 to 1.71

Day 13
P.P. 1.56 to 63
1.16 Limiting Reactant
Ex. 1.72 to 1.73

Day 14

1.17 Solution Stoichiometry
Ex. 1.74 to 1.80
P.P. 1.64 to 1.70

Day 15
1.18 Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solutions
Ex. 1.81 to 1.84
P.P. 1.71 to 1.75


Revision Period

Day 16

Conceptual Questions with Answers: 1 to 23

Day 17
Additional Numerical Problems for Practice: 1 to 10

Day 18

Additional Numerical Problems for Practice: 11 to 20

Day 19
Revision Exercises: Very Short Answer questions: 1 to 15

Day 20
Revision Exercises: Very Short Answer questions: 16 to 30

Day 21
Revision Exercises :Short Answer Questions 1 to 10

Day 22
Revision Exercises :Short Answer Questions 11 to 20



Day 23
Competition File: Illustration Problems: 1 to 5

Day 24
Competition File: Numerical Problems: 1 to 8
Day 25
Competition File: Numerical Problems: 9 to 16
Day 26
Competition File: Numerical Problems: 17 to 25
Day 27
Competition File: Objective Questions: 1 to 20
Day 28
Competition File: Objective Questions: 21 to 40

Day 29
Fill in the blanks: 10
True or False: 10

Day 30
Concept Review
Formula Review



Problems have to be included