Wednesday, February 18, 2015

Chemistry Knowledge History - February

February 1
Emilio Segrè born 1905: codiscovered technetium (Tc, element 43) and astatine (At, 85); spontaneous fission; antiproton; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1959
Roger Yonchien Tsien born 1952: green fluorescent protein, GFP; Nobel Prize, 2008.

February 2
Jean Baptiste Boussingault born 1802: agricultural chemistry; isolated and named sorbitol; role of nitrogen in plant nutrition.
Leaded gasoline first marketed in the US in Dayton, OH, 1923. Thomas Midgley, Jr., of General Motors Research labs added tetraethyllead to gasoline.
Albert Schatz born 1920: discovery of antitubercular agent streptomycin. Schatz's version of the discovery differs from the standard account in which Selman Waksman receives near-exclusive credit. The patent (US 2,449,866).

February 3
Leonora Neuffer Bilger born 1893: asymmetric nitrogen compounds; Garvan Medal, 1953

February 4
Joseph Goldberger begins the experiment that demonstrates that pellagra is a dietary disease, 1915. See part of his report.
Friedrich Hund born 1896: Hund's rules for electron configurations, the first of which predicts maximum multiplicity of spin; molecular-orbital theory (Hund-Mulliken approach).
John Jacob Livingood made radium E (210Bi) by bombarding common bismuth with deuterons, 1936, the first synthetis of a radioactive substance in the US.

February 5
John Boyd Dunlop born 1840; manufactured pneumatic rubber tires.
Lafayette Benedict Mendel born 1872: modern science of nutrition; codiscovered vitamin A and B complex; linked nutritive value of proteins to their amino acids.

February 6
William Parry Murphy born 1892: diabetes; pernicious anemia and other blood diseases; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1934
Clemens Winkler, in the course of analyzing a mineral, discovered element (germanium, Ge, element 32) in 1886, consistent with predictions by J. A. R. Newlands and Dmitrii Mendeleev.
Nikolai Dmitrievich Zelinskii born 1861: catalysis of hydrocarbon disproportionations; bromination of fatty acids (Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction)

February 7
Ulf Svante von Euler born 1905: identification of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) as a neurotransmitter; son of 1929 Nobel laureate biochemist Hans von Euler-Chelpin; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1970.
John Brown Francis Herreshoff born 1850: manufacture of sulfuric acid

February 8
Bernard Courtois born 1777: discovered iodine (I, element 53) from seaweed
Moses Gomberg born 1866: work on triphenylmethyl (first stable organic free radical); tautomerism
Robert Holton announces total synthesis of taxol, an important cancer drug, 1994.
Francis Robert Japp  born 1848: benzil, benzoin, and phenanthraquinone.
Dmitrii Mendeleev born 1834 (some sources say Feb. 7): periodic law and periodic table.
Friedlieb Runge born 1795: discovered carbolic acid (phenol) and aniline in coal tar; dry distillation

February 9
Edward Charles Baly born 1871: showed that organic compounds, including sugars, can be formed photochemically from water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia
Californium (Cf, element 98) discovered by (left to right) Kenneth Street, Jr., Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, and Albert Ghiorso using ion-exchange chromatography at University of California, Berkeley, 1950.
Lloyd Ferguson born 1918: chemical educator
Norman Bruce Hannay born 1921: materials for solid state electronics

February 10
Per Teodor Cleve born 1840: discovered holmium and thulium; suggested "didymium" was not elementary; naphthalene derivatives.
John Franklin Enders born 1897: showed polio virus was not only neurotropic; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1954.
Ira Remsen born 1846: prominent American organic chemist; founder of American Chemical Journal; first professor of chemistry at Johns Hopkins University; saccharin was discovered in his lab
February 11
Fred Basolo born 1920: organometallics.
Thomas Alva Edison born 1847: inventor (incandescent light (US 233,898), phonograph (US 200,521, electrical systems, etc.).
Josiah Willard Gibbs born 1839: thermodynamics and the phase rule; the Gibbs free energy is named after him.
Izaak Kolthoff born 1894: analytical chemistry.
Alwin Mittasch  and Christian Schneider filed US patent application for catalytic production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen (U.S. patent 1,201,850) in 1914.
William Henry Fox Talbot born 1800: photography pioneer.

February 12
Pierre-Louis Dulong born 1785: discovered nitrogen trichloride; refractive indices and specific heats of gases; law of Dulong and Petit (specific heat times atomic weight is the same for many elements); suggested that acids were compounds of hydrogen; formula for heat content of fuel (Dulong formula)
Moritz Traube born 1826: physiological chemist; semipermeable membranes, sugars, respiration, fermentation, putrefaction, oxidation, protoplasm, and muscle

February 13
Heinrich Caro born 1834: Caro's acid (H2SO5), dye chemistry.
Étienne-François Geoffroy born 1672: chemical affinities; displacement reactions in salt
Henry Clemens Pearson born 1858: rubber scientist and editor; see his books, Crude rubber and compounding ingredients and The rubber country of the Amazon

February 14
Evan Jay Crane born 1889: editor of Chemical Abstracts, 1915-1958; co-author of A Guide to the Literature of Chemistry (1927).
Herbert Aaron Hauptman born 1917: mathematical methods for crystal structures; Nobel Prize, 1985.
Lawrencium (Lr, element 103) was produced in 1961 by Torbjorn Sikkeland, Albert Ghiorso, and Almon Larsh and Robert Latimer, at University of California, Berkeley.
Julius Nieuwland born 1878: synthetic rubber pioneer (US patent 1,811,959); acetylene chemistry. .
Agnes Pockels born 1862: liquid surfaces: surface tension and films; invention of the slide trough and surface film balance. Read her article on surface tension.
Dennis Searle and E. M. Skillings found borax and other soluble salts near San Bernardino, CA, 1873.

February 15
Synthesis of diamond by Francis Bundy, H. Tracy Hall, Herbert Strong, & Robert H. Wentoff, Jr., at General Electric Research Laboratories announced in 1955.
Hans K. A. S. von Euler-Chelpin born 1873: enzymes and fermentation; father of 1970 Nobel laureate Ulf Svante von Euler; Nobel Prize, 1929
George Johnstone Stoney born 1826: suggested that electrical charge came in discrete units; coined term electron for "atom of electricity".

February 16
Julius Thomsen born 1826: heats of reaction, relative strength of acids, manufacture of soda from cryolite
John Rex Whinfield born 1901: terephthalic acid polyester fibers (terylene).
Robert Williams born 1886: isolation, synthesis, and manufacture of Vitamin B1 (thiamine).

February 17
Friedrich Konrad Beilstein born 1838: his standard reference work on organic chemistry was first published in 1880-83 and has been updated ever since
Wallace Henry Coulter born 1913: instrument maker; developed instrumentation to characterize particles.
Dmitrii Mendeleev sketched his first draft periodic table, 1869.
Otto Stern born 1888: quantization of angular momentum (Stern-Gerlach experiment); Nobel Prize (physics), 1943.

February 18

Harry Brearley born 1871: development of stainless steel
John Sinfelt born 1931: platinum-iridium catalysts in petroleum refining. Read a book chapter by Sinfelt on materials and catalysis.
Frederick Soddy introduced the term "isotopic" (meaning "same place") for elements which share the same place in the periodic table in 1913.

Alessandro Volta born 1745: invented the voltaic pile, the first electric battery; discovered and isolated methane. The unit of electric potential, the volt, is named in his honor.
(18 February 2015 - Google carries doodle in the honour of Volta)

The Voltaic Pile


Science Online

February 19
Svante Arrhenius born 1859: electrolytic dissociation, viscosity, reaction rates, and even the greenhouse effect; Nobel prize, 1903
Louis-Georges Gouy born 1854: interfacial electrical double layer.
Gottlieb Sigismund Kirchhof born 1764: catalytically produced glucose from starch.
Roderick MacKinnon born 1956: structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels; Nobel Prize, 2003
Ernest Marsden born 1889: scattering of alpha particles (work with Hans Geiger in Ernest Rutherford's lab), contributing to the development of the nuclear model of the atom. (Read 1909 and 1913 papers with Geiger.)
One atom of mendelevium (Md, element 101) was produced by Gregory R. Choppin, Glenn Seaborg, Bernard G. Harvey, and Albert Ghiorso in 1955 by bombarding a billion atoms of 253Es with helium.
Ferdinand Reich born 1799: codiscovered indium (In, element 49)

February 20
Isaac Adams, Jr. born 1836: pioneer in nickel plating.
Ludwig Boltzmann born 1844: statistical mechanics; thermodynamics, especially the second law; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular speeds; Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation; Boltzmann constant is named after him
Henry Eyring born 1901: chemical kinetics (transition-state theory, Eyring equation)
Helen Murray Free born 1923: diagnostic chemistry: reagents and instrumentation for clinical diagnosis in blood and urine chemistry, histology, and cytology
Robert Huber born 1937: three-dimensional structure of proteins involved in photosynthesis; Nobel Prize, 1988

February 21
Carl Henrik Dam born 1895: vitamin K as a dietary factor in blood clotting; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1943.
Humphry Davy reads paper introducing the name chlorine (to replace oxymuriatic acid) and asserting its elementary nature, 1811.
Oliver Wolcott Gibbs born 1822: early American inorganic and analytical chemist (Harvard); founding member of US National Academy of Sciences
Edwin Land demonstrates Polaroid camera to optical society meeting, 1947.
John Mercer born 1791: treated cotton with caustic soda (mercerized cotton); discovered some calico dyes
Dorothy Virginia Nightingale born 1902: synthetic organic chemistry, particularly reactions of alkylbenzenes in the presence of aluminum chloride; Garvan Medal, 1959
February 22
Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted born 1879: acid-base theory and properties of ions; kinetics and catalysis; nitramide
Heinrich Hertz born 1857: discovered electromagnetic waves and the photoelectric effect.
Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen born 1824: astronomical spectroscopy and photography, particularly of the Sun; found a line in the solar spectrum subsequently identified with helium.
Fritz Strassmann born 1902: nuclear fission.
Friedrich Wöhler wrote a letter to J. J. Berzelius stating that he had synthesized urea, an early synthesis of an organic compound from inorganic materials, 1828.

February 23
First organizational meeting of the Chemical Society of London, 1841. (The Royal Society of Chemistry is its successor organization.)
Casimir Funk born 1884: discovered vitamins and named them (vitamines)
Charles Martin Hall first produced electrolytic aluminum in 1886 (US patent 400,766).
Thomas Midgley, Jr., received US patent 1,573,846 for tetraethyllead as an anti-knock agent in gasoline, 1926.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg and coworkers chemically identified plutonium (Pu, element 94) at University of California, Berkeley, 1941.

February 24
First atom of element 107, eventually named Bohrium (Bh) was observed at GSI Laboratories, Darmstadt, Germany in 1981.
John Gorham born 1783: wrote Elements of Chemical Science, an early American chemistry text.
Karl Graebe born 1841: organic synthesis (alizarin) and nomenclature (ortho, meta, para prefixes).
Eugène Melchior Peligot born 1811: isolated uranium metal; identified glucose in diabetics' urine.
William Summer Johnson born 1913: synthesis of complex molecules

February 25
Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch born 1925: oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin; role of sulfur in proteins
Arthur Becket Lamb born 1880: editor of the Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1917-1949.
Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene born (as Fishel Aaronovich Lenin) 1869: biochemistry, hexosamines, and stereochemistry.
Ida Eva Noddack born  1896: co-discoverer of rhenium (Re, element 75) with husband Walter and Otto Berg; suggested (correctly) that nuclear fission rather than transuranic elements explained results reported by Enrico Fermi.
Mary Locke Petermann born 1908: ribosomes and protein synthesis

February 26
Marjorie Beckett Caserio born 1929: physical organic chemistry: kinetics and mechanisms; chemical education: Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Benoit Paul Emile Clapeyron born 1799: relationship between temperature, volume, and heat of vaporization (Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations).
Herbert Henry Dow born 1866: electrolytic production of bromine; founder of Dow Chemical.
Giulio Natta born 1903: polymer chemistry including polymer stereochemistry; Nobel Prize, 1963
William Joseph Sparks born 1905: advances in synthetic rubber.
Ahmed Zewail born 1946: "femtochemistry" (dynamics on a sub-picosecond time scale); Nobel Prize, 1999

February 27
James Chadwick's note announcing the possible discovery of the neutron is published in Nature, 1932.
Robert Grubbs born 1942: metathesis reactions and catalysts; Nobel Prize, 2005.
Alice Hamilton born 1869: occupational medicine; hazards of carbon monoxide, mercury, tetraethyllead, benzene, and others; first woman professor at Harvard.
Felix Hoffmann received US patent 644,077 for acetyl salicylic acid (better known as aspirin), 1900.
Karl Friedrich Wenzel died 1793 (birth date unknown c. 1740): stoichiometry; concentration determines the speed of chemical reactions.

February 28
Edward Goodrich Acheson received US patent number 492,767 for production of artificial silicon carbide ("Carborundum"), 1893.
Steven Chu: laser cooling and trapping of atoms; US Secretary of Energy; Nobel (physics), 1997.
Edmond Fremy born 1814: plumbates, stannates, and ferrates; preparation of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride; coloring of flowers and saponification of fats
Philip Showalter Hench born 1896: hormones of the adrenal cortex; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1950
Linus Carl Pauling born 1901: molecular structure, bonding (hybrid orbitals), electronegativity, and resonance (The Nature of the Chemical Bond); Nobel Prize, 1954; Nobel Peace Prize, 1962
February 29
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes announced solidification of helium, 1908.

Chemistry History

February 19 Chemistry Knowledge History

February 19

One atom of mendelevium (Md, element 101) was produced by Gregory R. Choppin, Glenn Seaborg, Bernard G. Harvey, and Albert Ghiorso in 1955 by bombarding a billion atoms of 253Es with helium.
Ferdinand Reich born 1799: codiscovered indium (In, element 49)

Birthdays of Nobel Prize Winners

Svante Arrhenius born 1859: electrolytic dissociation, viscosity, reaction rates, and even the greenhouse effect; Nobel prize, 1903
Roderick MacKinnon born 1956: structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels; Nobel Prize, 2003

Other Chemists
Gottlieb Sigismund Kirchhof born 1764: catalytically produced glucose from starch.
Louis-Georges Gouy born 1854: interfacial electrical double layer.
Ernest Marsden born 1889: scattering of alpha particles (work with Hans Geiger in Ernest Rutherford's lab), contributing to the development of the nuclear model of the atom. (Read 1909 and 1913 papers with Geiger.)

Voltaic Pile

Voltaic Pile

The Voltaic Pile may have been the first successful multi-cell battery. This video presents the history of this important device and explains how they are constructed. If you attempt to construct your own voltaic pile make sure you have adult supervision, someone with knowledge of electrical systems and safety procedures. Search the Internet for "voltaic pile" for more information about these devices.


Science Online

Monday, January 5, 2015

Chemistry Knowledge History - January

Chemistry History

January 1
Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA, originally Pittsburgh Reduction Company) renamed, 1907
U. S. Atomic Energy Commission took over nuclear oversight from wartime Manhattan Engineer District, 1947. Its successor, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.)
Cigarettes in the US must carry warning label, "Caution: Cigarette smoking may be hazardous to your health," since 1966, mandated by the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act of 1965. Since then, labeling requirements have evolved, and by late 2012, new labels will again be required.
Harriet Brooks born 1876: radioactivity, particularly radon (element, 86) as an emanation from radium.
Eugène-Anatole Demarçay born 1852: discovered europium (Eu, element 63); spectroscopic evidence of the discovery of radium (Ra, 88)
International Year of Chemistry, an initiative of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), began in 2011.
Robert John Kane proposed existence of ethyl radical (ethereum) in 1833.
Merck & Co. founded, 1891.
Harold Urey and co-workers announced discovery of deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen (H, element 1), 1932.

January 2
Roger Adams born 1889: organic synthesis. An ACS award in organic synthesis is named for Adams.
Isaac Asimov born 1920: biochemist; author of hundreds of books in science fiction and many non-fiction subjects.
Rudolf Clausius born 1822: fundamental contributions to thermodynamics and kinetic theory of gases; coined the term entropy.
Charles Hatchett born 1765: discovered niobium (Nb, element 41), which he called columbium
Walter Heitler born 1904: quantum-mechanical treatment of molecular hydrogen (Heitler-London approach).
January 3
Henry Bradley, Binghamton, NY, patented oleomargarine (U.S. Patent No. 110,626) in 1871.
Keith James Laidler born 1916: chemical kinetics; history of physical chemistry and of science and technology.
Spirit rover, a NASA geochemistry robot, lands on Mars, 2004, looking for evidence of water.
January 4
Herbert Henry Dow, founder of Dow Chemical, prepared bromine from brine, 1891.
Aristid Victor Grosse born 1905: isolated protactinium (Pa, element 91); 235U fission by slow neutrons
Louis Bernard Guyton de Morveau born 1737: one-time defender of phlogiston theory, chemical affinities, chemical nomenclature. View the 1787 Méthode de Nomenclature Chimique and Guyton's earlier (1782) paper on systematic nomenclature.
Richard Royce Schrock born 1945: high-oxidation-state transition-metal complexes; metathesis reactions and catalysts; Nobel Prize, 2005.
John Edgar Teeple born 1874: industrial chemistry and chemical economics; Perkin medal.
Florence Emeline Wall born 1893: cosmetic chemistry.

January 5

Joseph Erlanger born 1874: electrophysiology of nerves; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1944.
George Washington Carver died 1943 (born c. 1860): food chemistry, particularly known for peanuts and sweet potatoes.

January 6

John Van Nostrand Dorr born 1872: chemical engineer and inventor
Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer born 1914: chemical bonding and quantum mechanics.
Stuart Alan Rice born 1932: statistical mechanics and transport phenomena; phase transitions.

January 7
Eilhard Mitscherlich born 1794: crystal structure, catalysis, benzene and its derivatives; discovered chemical isomorphism
Henry Enfield Roscoe born 1833: chemical action of light; co-inventor of actinometer; first to isolate vanadium (V, element 23). Read his biography of Dalton and his autobiography .
John Ernest Walker born 1941: mechanism of ATP synthesis; Nobel Prize, 1997

January 8
John Allen Veatch found borax in mineral water at Tuscan Springs, CA, 1856.

January 9
Richard Abegg born 1869: valence, especially Abegg's rule that the difference between the maximum positive and negative valence of an element is frequently eight.
John Werner Cahn born 1928: thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transitions and diffusion; interfacial phenomena; periodic and quasi-periodic structures ("quasicrystals").
Alec Jeffreys born 1950: genetic fingerprinting; see US Patent 5,413,908.
Har Gobind Khorana born 1922: first synthesis of an artificial gene; interpretation of genetic code and protein synthesis function; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1968
Søren Sørensen born 1868: indroduced concept of pH as a measure of hydrogen ion concentration; research on proteins, amino acids, and enzymes

January 10
Sune Karl Bergström born 1916: purification and structure of prostaglandins; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1982.
Katharine Burr Blodgett born 1898: thin films (Langmuir-Blodgett films); anti-reflective coatings; gas-surface interactions; Garvan Medal, 1951
Frederick Gardner Cottrell born 1877: nitrogen fixation, liquefaction of gases, recovery of helium; invented electrostatic precipitator (Cottrell precipitator, US patent 895,729) for removing particles from gases

January 11
Frederick Mark Becket born 1875: inventor in electrochemistry and electrometallurgy
Roger Guillemin born 1924: function and synthesis of hypothalamic hormones; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1977.

January 12
Johan August Arfwedson born 1792: discovered lithium (Li, 3) in the mineral petalite.
Ruth Rogan Benerito born 1916: fat emulsions and transport of fat in animals; properties of cellulose (with applications to fabrics, particularly cotton)
Jan Baptista van Helmont born 1579: coined the term gas; experiment investigating whether vegetable life came from a single, element (water). Read three short excerpts from his writings and see the title page of his book on medicine.
Paul Hermann Müller born 1899: discovered the toxic effects of DDT on insects; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1948
Franz von Soxhlet born 1848: invented Soxhlet Extractor; isolated lactose and milk proteins.
Antonio de Ulloa born 1716: discoverer of platinum (Pt, 78).

January 13
Sydney Brenner born 1927: genetics of organ development and cell death; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2002.
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction signed in Paris by 130 nations, 1993.
Charles Mabery born 1850: early petroleum chemistry; electrolytic aluminum and bromine industries
Pierre-Jean Robiquet born 1780: codiscoverer of asparagine; analysis of opium for codeine
January 14
Armstrong World Industries incorporated as Armstrong Cork Co., 1895.
Ludwig Claisen born 1851: condensation of esters; rearrangement of allyl vinyl ethers
David Wesson born 1861: vegetable oils.

January 15
Henry Cavendish reported quantitative composition of water to Royal Society, 1784.
Pierre Samuel DuPont born 1870: president of DuPont credited with diversifying company from explosives to broad-based chemical company
William Prout born 1785: Prout's hypothesis (suggestion that all atomic weights are multiples of the atomic weight of hydrogen); analysis of biological materials; identified hydrochloric acid in the stomach
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen born 1895: nutrition and development of food resources; nitrogen fixation; preservation of silage; Nobel Prize, 1945
Cyrus More Warren born 1824: fractional distillation of coal tar and petroleum for analytical and industrial applications.
Frank Westheimer born 1912: physical organic chemistry (electrostatic effects, molecular mechanics, photoaffinity labeling)

January 16
Anders Ekeberg born 1767: discovered tantalum (Ta, element 73).
Fermium (Fm, element 100) was first isolated by (left to right) Louise Smith, Sherman Fried, Gary Higgins; (back row) Albert Ghiorso, Rod Spence, Glenn Seaborg, Paul Fields and John Huizenga (using ion-exchange chromatorgraphy) and identified, 1953, at University of California, Berkeley.
Leonor Michaelis born 1875: enzyme kinetics; Michaelis-Menten equation.

January 17
Benjamin Franklin born 1706: scientist, inventor, statesman, printer, philosopher, musician, and economist; described marsh gas to Priestley.
James Hall born 1761: geology: laboratory study of rock formation processes, artificial marble
Robert Hare born 1781: invented oxyhydrogen blowtorch.
Anselme Payen born 1795: discovered cellulose, dextrin (produced in the breakdown of starch), pectin, and the enzyme diastase (1833); developed processes for producing borax from boric acid and for refining beet sugar.

January 18
Edward Frankland born 1825: theory of valency; codiscoverer of helium (He, element 2) in the sun through spectroscopy; sanitation and river pollution; organometalic synthesis and valence
Johann (Hans) Goldschmidt born 1861: invented aluminothermite process (Goldschmidt process).

January 19
Henry Bessemer born 1813: metallurgist, inventor of the Bessemer process and Bessemer converter for making steel (US patent 16,082). Read his autobiography.
Harry Fisher born 1885: inventor in synthetic rubber and rubber technology
Jack Halpern born 1925: mechanisms of the action of vitamins and other biochemicals.
Lucy Weston Pickett born 1904: effects of X-rays on chemical reactions; X-ray crystallography; molecular spectroscopy; Garvan Medal, 1957
Susan Solomon born 1956: atmospheric chemistry of ozone, particularly polar.
James Watt born 1736: best known as an engineer whose version of the steam engine powered the Industrial Revolution, Watt was also one of the first to recognize that water was a compound substance.

January 20
Adolph Frank born 1834: made calcium cyanamide from calcium carbide and nitrogen.
Marie Anne Paulze Lavoisier born 1758: research assistant, collaborator, illustrator, editor, publisher, and spouse of Antoine Lavoisier; later spouse (but not collaborator) of Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford
Horace Wells born 1815: first to use a gas (nitrous oxide) as an anesthetic.

January 21
Dow Chemical produced the first ingot of any metal to be extracted from seawater (magnesium; Mg, element 12), 1941.
Edward Mallinckrodt born 1845: founder of Mallinckrodt Chemical Works
Konrad Bloch born 1912: cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism; Nobel Prize in Medicine, 1964.
Eduard Zintl [auf Deutsch] born 1898: intermetallic compounds; industrial chemistry.

January 22
André-Marie Ampère born 1775: best known for Ampère's law relating magnetic field and electrical current, Ampère also made a hypothesis about gases much like Avogadro's.
Francis Bacon born 1561: inductive scientific method; Novum Organum. Bacon applied his inductive method to the nature of heat.
Alan Heeger born 1936: conducting polymers; Nobel Prize, 2000.
King James I charters the first English organization of pharmacists ("Master, Wardens and Society of the Art and Mystery of the Apothecaries of the City of London"), 1617.

January 23
The nomination of Marie Curie to the French Academy of Sciences was rejected, 1911.
Otto Diels born 1876: codeveloper of diene synthesis (with Kurt Alder); practical method for synthesis of ring compounds from chain compounds (Diels-Alder reaction); Nobel Prize, 1950 (with Alder)
Gertrude Belle Elion born 1918: pharmaceutical chemist; leukemia-fighting drug (US patent 2,884,667); Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1988.
Karl Karlovich Klaus born 1796: discoverer of ruthenium (Ru, element 44); early platinum chemistry
Paul Langevin born 1872: X-rays and magnetism
John Charles Polanyi born 1929: used infrared chemiluminescence to follow excited reaction products; Nobel Prize, 1986.

January 24
Burris Bell Cunningham and coworkers first reported absorption spectrum of einsteinium compound (Es, element 99) at University of California, Berkeley, 1966.
Gold discovered at Sutter's Mill, California, 1848, causing '49er gold rush.
Joseph-Achille Le Bel born 1847: structural organic chemistry (tetrahedral carbon).
Opportunity rover, a NASA geochemistry robot, lands on Mars, 2004, looking for evidence of water.
Patent for microwave oven (US patent 2,495,429) issued to Percy Spencer, 1950.
Dan Shechtman born 1941: quasicrystals; Nobel Prize, 2011.
Morris William Travers born 1872: codiscoverer of krypton (Kr, element 36), neon (Ne, 10), and xenon (Xe, 54); low temperature chemistry

January 25

Robert Boyle born 1627: defined element; discovered proportionality of gas pressure and volume (Boyle's law); experiments in vacuo (for example, trying to support combustion in a vacuum); author of The Sceptical Chymist and New experiments physico-mechanicall, touching the spring of the air and its effects; suggested use of alcohol as biological preservative
Arvid Carlsson born 1923: dopamine, Parkinson's disease, and L-dopa (levodopa); Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2000.
Fluoridation of drinking water begins in Grand Rapids, MI (first municipal water fluoridation in US).
William Horne born 1865: refining and manufacture of sugar
Csaba Horvath born 1930: concept of early HPLC (high-pressure liquid chromatography) instruments.
Martin Klaproth reported to Berlin Academy of Sciences in 1798 the 1782 discovery by Franz Joseph Müller von Reichenstein of a new element and named it tellurium (Te, element 52).
Ilya Prigogine born 1917: thermodynamics of irreversible processes; "dissipative" structures; Nobel Prize, 1977.

January 26
Niels Bohr reported the discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann, and its interpretation by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch, to the Fifth Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics, 1939.
Claude Silbert Hudson born 1881: sugar chemistry; an ACS Award in Carbohydrate chemistry is named after him.
Polycarp Kusch born 1911: magnetic moment of the electron; Nobel Prize (physics), 1955.

January 27
John Carew Eccles born 1903: neurochemistry; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1963.
Thomas Alva Edison receives US Patent 233,898 for incandescent light bulb, 1880. See a list of patents.
Victor Moritz Goldschmidt born 1888: mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and abundance of elements and isotopes
Louis Kahlenberg born 1870: American physical chemist and electrochemist.
August Kekule presented his structure of benzene to the Société Chimique, Paris, 1865.

January 28
Edith Flanigen born 1929: molecular seives and petroleum refining catalysts.
Herbert Max Finlay Freundlich born 1880: colloids (stabilization by electrolytes) and surfaces (Freundlich adsorption isotherm).
Robert William Holley born 1922: structure and function of transfer-RNA; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1968.
Kathleen Yardley Lonsdale born 1903: X-ray crystallography; determination of benzene structure by X-ray crystallography. Read reminiscences by Lonsdale from Fifty Years of X-Ray Diffraction, edited by P. P. Ewald.

January 29
Henry Carrington Bolton born 1843: author and bibliographer in the history of chemistry. Read his Select Bibliography of Chemistry, 1492-1892 and Catalogue of Scientific and Technical Periodicals.
Linda Buck born 1947: research on olfaction, one of the "chemical senses;" Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2004.
Sydney Chapman born 1888: geophysicist; diffusion in kinetic theory of gases; oxygen reactions for stratospheric ozone
Edward Morley born 1838: ether drift experiments (Michelson-Morley experiment: read a modern description and the original paper); painstakingly precise determination of the combining weights of hydrogen and oxygen
Lewis Frederick Urry born 1927: inventor; alkaline batteries and lithium batteries.

January 30
Peter Agre born 1949: water channels in cell membranes; Nobel Prize, 2003.
Harold Simmons Booth born 1891: inorganic chemistry; fluoride gases
Alexandre-Émile Beguyer de Chancourtois born 1820: geologist whose arrangement of elements and other substances by atomic weight exhibited chemical periodicity in 1862. (See paper and Vis Tellurique figure.)
George Gerald Henderson born 1862: catalysis

January 31
Irving Langmuir born 1881: surface chemistry (Langmuir adsorption isotherm, Langmuir-Blodgett films); inventor of gas-filled tungsten lamp (US patent 1,180,159), use of atomic hydrogen blowpipe for welding, condensation pump for high vacuum; atomic structure and valence (see two examples: 1 and 2); Nobel Prize, 1932
Theodore William Richards born 1868: atomic weights, electrochemistry, and thermodynamics; discovered that lead from uranium and from thorium had different atomic weights (before isotope concept was introduced); Nobel Prize, 1914.

Tuesday, December 23, 2014

Chemistry Concepts Recall P to T


Phosphorous, Polonium, Potassium,



Radium, Reaction, Reactant, Roasting,


Sodium, Sulphur


Titanium, Tritration, Tungsten,

Sunday, December 21, 2014

Chemistry Concepts Recall U to Z




Valence, Valence bond approach. VSEPR Model





Zerothlaw of thermodynamics

Chemistry Concepts Recall K to O


Kossel - Lewis approach to bonding


Liquid state


Magnesium, Manganese,Mercury, Molybdenum,




Organic Chemistry, Oxidation, Oxygen,