Monday, November 23, 2015

Chemistry Knowledge History -November

November 1
Antoine Lavoisier reported to the French Academy of Sciences that sulfur and phosphorus gain weight upon heating, 1772. .
First detonation of a thermonuclear fusion bomb (H-bomb) at Elugelab Atoll, Marshall Islands, 1952.

November 2
Karl Benz receives patent (German patent 37435) for first automobile with internal combustion engine, 1886.
DuPont begins mass-production of the first commercially available synthetic rubber, DuPrene, in 1931.
Conrad Willgerodt born 1841: organic chemist interested in conversion of internal ketones to terminal thioamides (Willgerodt reaction)

November 3
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists founded, 1921.

Daniel Rutherford born 1749: discovered nitrogen (N, element 7); distinguished between carbon dioxide and nitrogen; invented maximum and minimum thermometer

Carlton Schwerdt announced crystallization of poliomyelitis virus at University of California, 1955.

Jokichi Takamine born 1854: biochemist and industrialist, isolated adrenaline (epinephrine).

November 4

Boris Aleksandrovich Arbuzov born 1903: organic chemist; free radicals of triarylmethane derivatives, terpenes, phosphorous-containing heterocycles

James Douglas born 1837: mining engineer: Hunt-Douglas process for copper extraction; established first commercial electrolytic copper plant.

Charles Kuen Kao born 1933: fiber optics for communication; Nobel Prize (physics), 2009

Karl Friedrich Mohr born 1806: analytical chemistry, particularly titrimetric methods; Mohr's salt (ferrous ammonium sulfate, Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2.

Charles Lee Reese born 1862: manufacture of dyes and explosives.

William Hyde Wollaston presented his "synoptic scale of equivalents" to the Royal Society, 1813.

X-10 fission reactor, the first to produce large amounts of radioisotopes for further research, went critical at Oak Ridge, 1943.

November 5
Neil Kensington Adam born 1891: surface film monolayers; two-dimensional state of matter at water-air interface;
William Phillips born 1948: laser cooling of atoms; Nobel Prize (physics), 1997.

Paul Sabatier born 1854: catalysis in organic chemistry; hydrogenation of oils to solid fats; Nobel Prize, 1912

Marc Tiffeneau  born 1873: organic molecular transpositions (e.g., Tiffeneau-Demjanov rearrangement); pharmacology.

November 6

Isidor (Ian) Morris Heilbron born 1886: synthesis of natural products such as vitamins A and D

November 7

Marie Curie  born 1867: codiscoverer of radium (Ra, element 88) and polonium (Po, 84) with husband Pierre; other fundamental work in radioactivity; Nobel Prize (physics), 1903; Nobel Prize (chemistry), 1911. Curium (Cm, element 96) is named after Marie and Pierre.

Eric Kandel born 1929: molecular mechanisms of synapse modification, including protein phosphorylation; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 2000.

Lise Meitner born 1878: nuclear fission; discoverer of protactinium (Pa, element 91). Meitnerium (Mt, element 109) is named after her.

Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman born 1888: Raman effect (inelastic scattering of light; ); Nobel Prize (physics), 1930.

November 8
Lawrence Elgin Glendenin born 1918: codiscoverer of promethium (Pm, element 61)
Herbert Sander Gutowsky born 1919: rotational and NMR spectroscopy.
Darleane Christian Hoffman born 1926: production and study of transuranium elements; discovery of 244Pu in nature; Garvan Medal, 1990; Priestley Medal, 2000.
Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays, 1895.
Johannes Rydberg born 1854: empirical relationship for series of atomic spectral lines later provided clues on atomic structure; Rydberg constant named after him

November 9

Thomas Drummond heated a ball of lime in front of a reflector, 1825. This first practical use of limelight leads to improvements in theater and lighthouse lighting.

Element 110 (Darmstadtium, Ds) created (3 atoms) at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, 1994.

Grace Medes born 1886: metabolism of fatty acids and of sulfur and sulfur-containing amino acids

Ronald George Wreyford Norrish born 1897: kinetics of extremely fast reactions; Nobel Prize, 1967

Jack Szostak born 1948: telomerase; Nobel Prize (medicine), 2009.

November 10

Andrès Manuel Del Rio born 1764: discovered vanadium (V, element 23 ), which he called erthronium

Ernst Otto Fischer born 1918: structure of ferrocene; Nobel Prize, 1973.

November 11

Discovery of cosmic rays announced, 1925, in Madison, WI.
Glenn Seaborg announced discovery of americium (Am, element 95) and curium (Cm, 96) on the Quiz Kids radio program, 1945, in response to a question.

November 12

Jacques Charles born 1746: Charles' law relating temperature and volume of a gas; invented hydrogen balloon.

John Dalton announced the first example of the law of multiple proportions in 1802 (in a paper on atmospheric gases).

Antoine Lavoisier described to the French Royal Academy of Sciences in 1783 experiments that show water to be a compound, not an element.

John William Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) born 1842: codiscoverer of argon (Ar, element 18); Nobel Prize (physics), 1904.

November 13
Edward Adelbert Doisy born 1893: research on sex hormones; isolated theelin (estrone) and vitamin K; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1943

November 14

Leo Baekeland born 1863: invented Bakelite plastic (phenol-formaldehyde resins, US patent 942,699) and Velox paper; president of Electrochemical Society

Frederick Grant Banting born 1891: extraction of insulin and its role in diabetes; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1923.

Harry Barkus Gray born 1935: inorganic and bioinorganic chemistry (electronic structure, spectroscopy, mechanisms)

Auguste Laurent born 1807: discovered anthracene; obtained phthalic acid from naphthalene; identified carbolic acid with phenol; nucleus theory of organic radicals; constructed a saccharimeter

November 15
Carl Gassner, Jr. received US patent 373,064 for a dry cell battery, 1887

Albertus Magnus died 1280 (birth date unknown in 1200): discovered arsenic (As, 33); first to use the term affinity in the chemical sense;

Humphry Davy named chlorine (Cl, element 17), 1810. Chlorine had been called oxymuriatic acid.

November 16

Joel Hildebrand born 1881: liquids and solutions; introduced helium (He, element 2) into deep-sea diving
November 17

George Thomas Beilby born 1850: invented process for retorting shale; industrial synthesis of alkaline cyanides

November 18

Seth Boyden born 1788: invented a process for manufacturing malleable iron, but did not patent his inventions

Louis Daguerre born 1789 : photographic pioneer, inventor of the daguerreotype
George Bogdan Kistiakowsky born 1900: reaction rates, science policy.
George Wald born 1906: chemistry of vision; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1967.

November 19
Humphry Davy announced the isolation of sodium (Na, element 11) and potassium (K, 19) to the Royal Society, 1807. (Read excerpts of Davy's announcement.)
Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov born 1711: suggested law of conservation of mass; suggested that heat was a form of motion; recorded freezing of mercury; opponent of phlogiston theory
James Batcheller Sumner born 1887: enzymes and proteins; crystallized urease and showed it to be a protein; Nobel Prize, 1946
Earl Sutherland born 1915: mechanism of hormone action, including role of cyclic AMP; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1971.

November 20
Karl von Frisch born 1886: zoologist, chemical and visual perception of fish and bees; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1973.

November 21
Vladimir Nikolaievich Ipatieff born 1867: high-pressure catalysis; petroleum chemistry (at Universal Oil Products Riverside Laboratory).
Hieronymus Theodor Richter [auf Deutsch] born 1824: codiscoverer of indium (In, element 49).

November 22
Andrew Fielding Huxley born 1917: co-discoverer of ionic mechanism of neural conductance; gransdon of biologist Thomas Henry Huxley; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1963.
The Manned Spacecraft Center (now the Johnson Space Center announced a process to extract water and oxygen from moon soil, 1970. (Learn more about human space flight and about water on the moon.)
Dmitri Mendeleev stated that gallium (Ga, element 31) is identical to eka-aluminum, 1875. View early versions (1869, 1871) of Mendeleev's periodic table or his retrospective of the periodic law 20 years later.

November 23

Rachel Fuller Brown born 1898: biochemist, co-discoverer of the fungicide nystatin (US patent 2,797,183), the first antibiotic used effectively to treat human fungal infections.

Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley born 1887: discovered that X-ray frequency is related to atomic number of elements.
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Johannes Diderik van der Waals born 1837: equation of state for non-ideal gases (van der Waals equation), intermolecular interactions (van der Waals forces), electrolytic dissociation, capilarity; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1910.

November 24
Robert Banks born 1921: polyethylene and polypropylene (US patent 2,825,721).

November 25
Julius Robert von Mayer born 1814: conservation of energy

November 26

Elizabeth Helen Blackburn born 1948: telomerase; Nobel Prize (medicine), 2009.

Charles Hatchett announced discovery of columbium (niobium, Nb, element 41) before Royal Society, 1801.

John Alexander Reina Newlands born 1837: classification of elements ("law of octaves")

Charles Adolphe Wurtz born 1817: synthesis of hydrocarbons (Wurtz reaction), methyl & ethyl amines, phosphorous oxychloride, and glycol.

Karl Ziegler born 1898: polymerization through organometallic catalysis; plastics; Nobel Prize, 1963.

November 27

Lars Onsager born 1903: thermodynamics of irreversible reactions; Nobel Prize, 1968

Anders Celsius born 1701: set up a centigrade temperature scale with 0 at the boiling point of water and 100 at the freezing point. Today's Celsius scale has 0 at the freezing point and 100 at the boiling point.

Chaim Weizmann born 1874: biological synthesis of acetone; first president of Israel.

November 28
Maurice Arveson born 1902: petroleum technology, including hydrocarbon conversion patent 2,360,463; president of the American Chemical Society.
First pure compound of berkelium (Bk, element 97) announced, based on work at the University of California, Berkeley, 1962.
John Wesley Hyatt born 1837: inventor of the plastic celluloid.

Alfred Nobel obtained a patent for smokeless gunpowder (Ballistite), 1887. )

November 29

Wallace Broecker born 1931: ocean cirulcation; carbon cycle; global climate change.
Yuan Tseh Lee born 1936: molecular beam study of gas-phase reactions; Nobel Prize, 1986.

November 30

Chlorotetracycline, a broad-spectrum antibiotic (also known as aureomycin), was isolated by Benjamin Minge Duggar at American Cyanamid (now part of BASF Agricultural Products), 1948.

Henry Taube born 1915: electron-transfer reactions; Nobel Prize, 1983.

Andrew Victor Schally born 1926: function and synthesis of hypothalamic hormones; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1977.

Smithson Tennant born 1761: discovered iridium (Ir, element 77) and osmium (Os, 76); determined that diamonds are pure carbon.

Egor Egorevich Vagner (also known as Georg Wagner) born 1849: terpene chemistry; permanganate hydroxylation of alkenes; Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements

Chemsitry History

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