I have got a book from our library on Organic Chemistry by Roberts, Stewart, and Caserio. Earlier as I wanted to read it, it was difficult to follow the first chapter. But now that I read most of the lessons of JEE syllabus from the end, I am feeling comfortable to read this book. Now.
The First Chapter - Introduction
Some new things (either in explanation or in content) that I came to know
Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Flourine
2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
due to the big difference in electronegativity between carbon and flourine, the covalent bond between them is polar covalent bond.
The polar covalent bond between C and O will have less polarity than that between C and F.
Hydrogen bond is a bond between molecules giving rise to intermolecular force. To be effective, hydrogen bonding requires the presence of -OH, -N-H, or F-H group; in other words, a hydrogen atom joined to a small electronegative atom.
The covalent bonds to such hydrogen atoms are strongly polarised toward the electronegative atom, for example molecule R-O-H. In such a molecule, the partially positive hydrogen will be attracted toward the partially negative oxygen atom in a neighboring molecule. Such bonds are continually formed and broken. the most important group responsible for hydrogen bonding is the hydroxyl group -OH.