Ch 2: the C1 and C2 hydrocarbons
Things I came to know or understood better.
Structure designates the order in which the atoms are joined to each other. But a structure does not necessarily specify the exact shape of a molecule because rotation of atoms about single bonds of Carbon could lead, even for a molecule as simple as ethane, to an infinite number of different arrangements of atoms in space. There are called conformations and depend on the angular relationship between hydrogens on each carbon. Two extreme arrangements - eclipsed position: hydrogens on the forward carbon directly in front of those on the back carbon. - staggered conformation has each of the hydrogens n the forward carbon between each of the hydrogens on the back carbon.
Methyl Cation - carbonium ion
Methyl Anion - Carbanion
Methylene (a carbene)