Monday, February 8, 2016

Chemistry Knowledge History - February

February 1 - Chemistry Knowledge History


Emilio Segrè (1905): codiscovered technetium (Tc, element 43) and astatine (At, 85); spontaneous fission; antiproton; Nobel Prize (Physics), 1959  Astatine is a halogen.

Roger Yonchien Tsien (1952): green fluorescent protein, GFP; Nobel Prize, 2008.

February 2 - Chemistry Knowledge History

1923 Leaded gasoline first marketed in the US in Dayton, OH,
1923. Thomas Midgley, Jr., of General Motors Research labs added tetraethyllead to gasoline.


Jean Baptiste Boussingault 1802: agricultural chemistry; isolated and named sorbitol; role of nitrogen in plant nutrition.

Albert Schatz  1920: discovery of antitubercular agent streptomycin. Schatz's version of the discovery differs from the standard account in which Selman Waksman receives near-exclusive credit. The patent (US 2,449,866).

February 3 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Leonora Neuffer Bilger  1893: asymmetric nitrogen compounds; Received Garvan Medal in 1953

February 4  - Chemistry Knowledge History

Joseph Goldberger begins the experiment that demonstrates that pellagra is a dietary disease, 1915.

John Jacob Livingood made radium E (210Bi) by bombarding common bismuth with deuterons, 1936, the first synthetis of a radioactive substance in the US.


Friedrich Hund born 1896: Hund's rules for electron configurations, the first of which predicts maximum multiplicity of spin; molecular-orbital theory (Hund-Mulliken approach).

February 5  - Chemistry Knowledge History

Birthdays - 5 Feb

John Boyd Dunlop (1840); manufactured pneumatic rubber tires.

Lafayette Benedict Mendel  (1872): modern science of nutrition; codiscovered vitamin A and B complex; linked nutritive value of proteins to their amino acids.

February 6  - Chemistry Knowledge History

William Parry Murphy born 1892: diabetes; pernicious anemia and other blood diseases; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1934
Clemens Winkler, in the course of analyzing a mineral, discovered element (germanium, Ge, element 32) in 1886, consistent with predictions by J. A. R. Newlands and Dmitrii Mendeleev.
Nikolai Dmitrievich Zelinskii born 1861: catalysis of hydrocarbon disproportionations; bromination of fatty acids (Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction)

February 7  - Chemistry Knowledge History

Ulf Svante von Euler born 1905: identification of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) as a neurotransmitter; son of 1929 Nobel laureate biochemist Hans von Euler-Chelpin; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1970.
John Brown Francis Herreshoff born 1850: manufacture of sulfuric acid

February 8 -  - Chemistry Knowledge History

Robert Holton announces total synthesis of taxol, an important cancer drug, 1994.


Bernard Courtois  1777: discovered iodine (I, element 53) from seaweed
Friedlieb Runge born 1795: discovered carbolic acid (phenol) and aniline in coal tar; dry distillation

                                                    Source: Google Doodle of 8 Feb 2016

Dmitrii Mendeleev born 1834 : periodic law and periodic table.

Francis Robert Japp  born 1848: benzil, benzoin, and phenanthraquinone.
Moses Gomberg born 1866: work on triphenylmethyl (first stable organic free radical); tautomerism

February 9

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Edward Charles Baly born 1871: showed that organic compounds, including sugars, can be formed photochemically from water, carbon dioxide, and ammonia
Californium (Cf, element 98) discovered by  Kenneth Street, Jr., Stanley G. Thompson, Glenn T. Seaborg, and Albert Ghiorso using ion-exchange chromatography at University of California, Berkeley, 1950.
Lloyd Ferguson born 1918: chemical educator
Norman Bruce Hannay born 1921: materials for solid state electronics

February 10

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Per Teodor Cleve born 1840: discovered holmium and thulium; suggested "didymium" was not elementary; naphthalene derivatives.
John Franklin Enders born 1897: showed polio virus was not only neurotropic; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1954.
Ira Remsen born 1846: prominent American organic chemist; founder of American Chemical Journal; first professor of chemistry at Johns Hopkins University; saccharin was discovered in his lab

February 11

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Fred Basolo born 1920: organometallics.
Thomas Alva Edison born 1847: inventor (incandescent light (US 233,898), phonograph (US 200,521, electrical systems, etc.).
Josiah Willard Gibbs born 1839: thermodynamics and the phase rule; the Gibbs free energy is named after him.
Izaak Kolthoff born 1894: analytical chemistry.
Alwin Mittasch  and Christian Schneider filed US patent application for catalytic production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen (U.S. patent 1,201,850) in 1914.
William Henry Fox Talbot born 1800: photography pioneer.

February 12

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Pierre-Louis Dulong born 1785: discovered nitrogen trichloride; refractive indices and specific heats of gases; law of Dulong and Petit (specific heat times atomic weight is the same for many elements); suggested that acids were compounds of hydrogen; formula for heat content of fuel (Dulong formula)

Moritz Traube born 1826: physiological chemist; semipermeable membranes, sugars, respiration, fermentation, putrefaction, oxidation, protoplasm, and muscle

February 13

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Heinrich Caro born 1834: Caro's acid (H2SO5), dye chemistry.
Étienne-François Geoffroy born 1672: chemical affinities; displacement reactions in salt
Henry Clemens Pearson born 1858: rubber scientist and editor; see his books, Crude rubber and compounding ingredients and The rubber country of the Amazon

February 14

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Herbert Aaron Hauptman born 1917: mathematical methods for crystal structures; Nobel Prize, 1985.
Lawrencium (Lr, element 103) was produced in 1961 by Torbjorn Sikkeland, Albert Ghiorso, and Almon Larsh and Robert Latimer, at University of California, Berkeley.
Julius Nieuwland born 1878: synthetic rubber pioneer (US patent 1,811,959); acetylene chemistry. .
Agnes Pockels born 1862: liquid surfaces: surface tension and films; invention of the slide trough and surface film balance. Read her article on surface tension.
Dennis Searle and E. M. Skillings found borax and other soluble salts near San Bernardino, CA, 1873.

February 15

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Synthesis of diamond by Francis Bundy, H. Tracy Hall, Herbert Strong, & Robert H. Wentoff, Jr., at General Electric Research Laboratories announced in 1955.

Hans K. A. S. von Euler-Chelpin born 1873: enzymes and fermentation; father of 1970 Nobel laureate Ulf Svante von Euler; Nobel Prize, 1929

George Johnstone Stoney born 1826: suggested that electrical charge came in discrete units; coined term electron for "atom of electricity".

February 16

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Julius Thomsen born 1826: heats of reaction, relative strength of acids, manufacture of soda from cryolite
John Rex Whinfield born 1901: terephthalic acid polyester fibers (terylene).

Robert Williams born 1886: isolation, synthesis, and manufacture of Vitamin B1 (thiamine).

February 17

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Friedrich Konrad Beilstein born 1838: his standard reference work on organic chemistry was first published in 1880-83 and has been updated ever since

Wallace Henry Coulter born 1913: instrument maker; developed instrumentation to characterize particles.
Dmitrii Mendeleev sketched his first draft periodic table, 1869.

Otto Stern born 1888: quantization of angular momentum (Stern-Gerlach experiment); Nobel Prize (physics), 1943.

February 18 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Harry Brearley born 1871: development of stainless steel
John Sinfelt born 1931: platinum-iridium catalysts in petroleum refining. Read a book chapter by Sinfelt on materials and catalysis.
Frederick Soddy introduced the term "isotopic" (meaning "same place") for elements which share the same place in the periodic table in 1913.

Alessandro Volta born 1745: invented the voltaic pile, the first electric battery; discovered and isolated methane. The unit of electric potential, the volt, is named in his honor.
(18 February 2015 - Google carries doodle in the honour of Volta)

The Voltaic Pile


Science Online

February 19

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Svante Arrhenius born 1859: electrolytic dissociation, viscosity, reaction rates, and even the greenhouse effect; Nobel prize, 1903

Louis-Georges Gouy born 1854: interfacial electrical double layer.
Gottlieb Sigismund Kirchhof born 1764: catalytically produced glucose from starch.
Roderick MacKinnon born 1956: structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels; Nobel Prize, 2003
Ernest Marsden born 1889: scattering of alpha particles (work with Hans Geiger in Ernest Rutherford's lab), contributing to the development of the nuclear model of the atom.
One atom of mendelevium (Md, element 101) was produced by Gregory R. Choppin, Glenn Seaborg, Bernard G. Harvey, and Albert Ghiorso in 1955 by bombarding a billion atoms of 253Es with helium.
Ferdinand Reich born 1799: codiscovered indium (In, element 49)

February 20

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Isaac Adams, Jr. born 1836: pioneer in nickel plating.
Ludwig Boltzmann born 1844: statistical mechanics; thermodynamics, especially the second law; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular speeds; Stefan-Boltzmann law of blackbody radiation; Boltzmann constant is named after him

Henry Eyring born 1901: chemical kinetics (transition-state theory, Eyring equation)
Helen Murray Free born 1923: diagnostic chemistry: reagents and instrumentation for clinical diagnosis in blood and urine chemistry, histology, and cytology
Robert Huber born 1937: three-dimensional structure of proteins involved in photosynthesis; Nobel Prize, 1988

February 21

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Carl Henrik Dam born 1895: vitamin K as a dietary factor in blood clotting; Nobel Prize (medicine), 1943.
Humphry Davy reads paper introducing the name chlorine (to replace oxymuriatic acid) and asserting its elementary nature, 1811.

Oliver Wolcott Gibbs born 1822: early American inorganic and analytical chemist (Harvard); founding member of US National Academy of Sciences
Edwin Land demonstrates Polaroid camera to optical society meeting, 1947.
John Mercer born 1791: treated cotton with caustic soda (mercerized cotton); discovered some calico dyes
Dorothy Virginia Nightingale born 1902: synthetic organic chemistry, particularly reactions of alkylbenzenes in the presence of aluminum chloride; Garvan Medal, 1959

February 22

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted born 1879: acid-base theory and properties of ions; kinetics and catalysis; nitramide

Heinrich Hertz born 1857: discovered electromagnetic waves and the photoelectric effect.
Pierre Jules Cesar Janssen born 1824: astronomical spectroscopy and photography, particularly of the Sun; found a line in the solar spectrum subsequently identified with helium.
Fritz Strassmann born 1902: nuclear fission.
Friedrich Wöhler wrote a letter to J. J. Berzelius stating that he had synthesized urea, an early synthesis of an organic compound from inorganic materials, 1828.

February 23

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

First organizational meeting of the Chemical Society of London, 1841. (The Royal Society of Chemistry is its successor organization.)

Casimir Funk born 1884: discovered vitamins and named them (vitamines)
Charles Martin Hall first produced electrolytic aluminum in 1886 (US patent 400,766).
Thomas Midgley, Jr., received US patent 1,573,846 for tetraethyllead as an anti-knock agent in gasoline, 1926.
Glenn Theodore Seaborg and coworkers chemically identified plutonium (Pu, element 94) at University of California, Berkeley, 1941.

February 24

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

First atom of element 107, eventually named Bohrium (Bh) was observed at GSI Laboratories, Darmstadt, Germany in 1981.

John Gorham born 1783: wrote Elements of Chemical Science, an early American chemistry text.
Karl Graebe born 1841: organic synthesis (alizarin) and nomenclature (ortho, meta, para prefixes).
Eugène Melchior Peligot born 1811: isolated uranium metal; identified glucose in diabetics' urine.
William Summer Johnson born 1913: synthesis of complex molecules

February 25

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Ruth Erica (Leroi) Benesch born 1925: oxygen-carrying capacity of hemoglobin; role of sulfur in proteins
Arthur Becket Lamb born 1880: editor of the Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1917-1949.
Phoebus Aaron Theodor Levene born (as Fishel Aaronovich Lenin) 1869: biochemistry, hexosamines, and stereochemistry.
Ida Eva Noddack born  1896: co-discoverer of rhenium (Re, element 75) with husband Walter and Otto Berg; suggested (correctly) that nuclear fission rather than transuranic elements explained results reported by Enrico Fermi.
Mary Locke Petermann born 1908: ribosomes and protein synthesis

February 26

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Marjorie Beckett Caserio born 1929: physical organic chemistry: kinetics and mechanisms; chemical education: Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Benoit Paul Emile Clapeyron born 1799: relationship between temperature, volume, and heat of vaporization (Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations).
Herbert Henry Dow born 1866: electrolytic production of bromine; founder of Dow Chemical.
Giulio Natta born 1903: polymer chemistry including polymer stereochemistry; Nobel Prize, 1963
William Joseph Sparks born 1905: advances in synthetic rubber.
Ahmed Zewail born 1946: "femtochemistry" (dynamics on a sub-picosecond time scale); Nobel Prize, 1999

February 27

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

James Chadwick's note announcing the possible discovery of the neutron is published in Nature, 1932.

Robert Grubbs born 1942: metathesis reactions and catalysts; Nobel Prize, 2005.
Alice Hamilton born 1869: occupational medicine; hazards of carbon monoxide, mercury, tetraethyllead, benzene, and others; first woman professor at Harvard.
Felix Hoffmann received US patent 644,077 for acetyl salicylic acid (better known as aspirin), 1900.
Karl Friedrich Wenzel died 1793 (birth date unknown c. 1740): stoichiometry; concentration determines the speed of chemical reactions.

February 28

 - Chemistry Knowledge History

Edward Goodrich Acheson received US patent number 492,767 for production of artificial silicon carbide ("Carborundum"), 1893.

Steven Chu: laser cooling and trapping of atoms; US Secretary of Energy; Nobel (physics), 1997.
Edmond Fremy born 1814: plumbates, stannates, and ferrates; preparation of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride; coloring of flowers and saponification of fats

Philip Showalter Hench born 1896: hormones of the adrenal cortex; Nobel Prize (Medicine), 1950

Linus Carl Pauling born 1901: molecular structure, bonding (hybrid orbitals), electronegativity, and resonance (The Nature of the Chemical Bond); Nobel Prize, 1954; Nobel Peace Prize, 1962
February 29

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes announced solidification of helium, 1908.

National Science Day of India

Chemistry History

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