Preparation and properties of the following compounds:
Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid);
Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide;
Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia;
Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine;
Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide;
Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate;
Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides;
Fertilizers: commercially available (common) NPK type.
MAIN TOPICS IN TMH BOOK
Compounds of Boron
The hydrides of boron are known by a general name borane.
These boranes are gaseous substances at room temperature.
The general formulae of the two important series of boranes are BnHn+4 and BnHn+6.
Amongst the well known boron hydrides are: diborane (B2H6), tetraborane (B4H10), pentaborane (B5H9), and hexaborane (B6H10), etc.
The simplest and the most important hydride of boron is diborane.
Borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate, Na2B4O7.10H2O) is used in the production of adhesives, anti-corrosion systems and in many other uses.
Boric acid was first made or equipped by Wilhelm Homberg in 1652-1715.
He did this by the action of mineral salts and from borax.
The acid is found among certain volcanic areas like Nevada, Tuscany, and the Lipari islands.
It is soluble in boiling water and when it's heated above 170 degrees Celsius in dehydrates and forms metaboric acid, HBO2.
This metaboric acid is a white colored cubic crystalline solid that is somewhat soluble in water and melts when near 236 degrees Celsius.
When it is heated even higher above 300 degrees Celsius in dehydrates even more and it turns into tetraboric acid or pyroboric acid, H2B4O7.
Further heating leads to boron trioxide.
Boric acid can refer to any of these compounds.
Boric acid is sometimes also called orthoboric acid and boracic acid.
It is in the form of a white powder and it easily dissolves in water. Boric acid is a more mild acid and it is most commonly used as and flame retardant, antiseptic, in nuclear power plants to control the fission rate of uranium, insecticide, and as a precursor of other chemical compounds. When boric acid occurs as a mineral it is sometimes called sassolite. It has the chemical formula of H3BO3, and it's sometimes written B(OH)3. The biggest source of it is in California. When boric acid is produced it is mainly from borate minerals when it reacts with sulfuric acid.
some coumpounds of non metals
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