Hoffmann’s method: When an aqueous or alcoholic solution of ammonia is heated with an alkyl halide at 373 K in a sealed tube, a mixture of three amines (primary, secondary and tertiary) is obtained. It is very difficult to separate the mixture.
2. Gabriel phthalimide synthesis
In this synthesis, phthalimide is treated with alcoholic KOH to give potassium phthalimide.
Potassium phthalimide is treated with alky halide to form N-alkyl phthalimide.
The hydrolysis of N-alkyl phthalimide with 20% HCl under pressure or refluxing with NaOH gives primary amine.
This method can be used for preparing only primary amines.
3. Reduction of nitriles (cyanides)
Nitriles can be reduced to corresponding amines using H2/Raney Li or Pt, LiAlH4 or Na, C2H5OH
When sodium and alcohol are used, the reaction is called Mendius reaction
4. Reduction of isonitriles (isocyanides)
Isonitriles can be reduced to secondary amines using H2/Raney Li or Pt, LiAlH4 or Na, C2H5OH
5. Reduction of amides (Hoffman degradation method)
Amides on treatment with Br2 and KOH give primary amines. The amine formed contains one carbon atom less than the parent amide.
6. Reduction of oximes
Oximes are obtained from aldehydes and ketones by reaction with hydroxylamine. The oximes of aldehydes or ketones can be reduced to primary amines with either Na/CH2H5OH or LiAlH4.
7. Reductive amination of aldehydes and ketones
Reaction between aldehydes or ketones and ammonia results in the formation of imines. Imines are reduced to primary amines with H2, Ni.