Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate, sulphide and sulphite.
Characteristic tests of Anions
Sulphide: With dilute H2SO4, H2S is evolved, which turns lead acetate paper black.
Sulphite: With dilute H2SO4, SO2 is released.
Sulphate: Soluble sulphate salt gives white precipitate of BaSO4 with BaCl2 solution which is insoluble in concentrated HCl.
Nitrite: With dilute H2SO4, nitric oxide is released.
Chloride: With conc. H2SO4,HCl gas is released.
Bromide: With conc. H2SO4,brownish vapours of Br2 are released.
Iodide: With conc H2SO4,violet vapours of I2 are released.
Nitrate: With conc H2SO4, brown vapours of NO2 are released.
Analysis of Cations
Group I cations: Ag, Hg, Pb
Group II : Hg, Cu, Bi, Cd, As, Sb, Sn
Group III: Fe, Cr, Al,
Group IV: Co, Mn, Ni, Zn
Group V: Ba, Sr, Ca