The concept of atoms and molecules;
Dalton's atomic theory;
Balanced chemical equations;
Calculations (based on mole concept) involving common oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, and displacement reactions;
Concentration in terms of mole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.
Stochiometric coefficients or numbers: The numbers which appear before the chemical symbols in a chemical equation.
Chemical equation gives information about moles of various reactants and products. Hence molar masses involved in the reaction and molar masses of products.
Mass percentage of substance in a system
Mole fraction of a substance in a system
Molarity = Amount of a substance (in mol)/Volume of solution expressed in dm^3
It is applicable to solutions only.
The unit of molarity is mol dm^-3. It is commonly abbreviated by the symbol M and is spelled as molar.
Molality = Amount of a a substance (in mol)/Mass of solvent expressed in kg
It is also applicable to solutions only
CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT
"One equivalent of a substance in a reaction is defined as the amount of substance which reacts or liberates 1 mol of electrons (or H^+ or OH^- ions).